The current approach to the regulation of traffic when traveling at high density cannot solve the problem of a formation of congestion and traffic jams in major cities around the world. Identification of weaknesses of this approach made possible to develop new road constructions as well as new technique on the basis of the well-known method of controlling traffic «ramp metering». It enables to eliminate a formation of congestion and traffic jams on highways and it improves the throughput of highways in several times.
Keywords: Non-stop traffic, traffic jams, inexpensive elevated highway, steel framework, interstorey crossings, buffer lanes, unlimited throughput, eco-safe road construction.
Table of Contents
Losses from jams, accidents, the air pollution by exhaust gases on highways of cities of the world. Their annual value. Assessment of possibility of essential decrease of these losses.
The two-level highway-platform for non-stop movement of passenger cars including additional top parking level (city option). Economic estimate.
The transformation of highways of major cities in highways with non-stop movement and practically unlimited throughput.
The technical solutions providing of non-stop movement of vehicles upon operating highways (without traffic jams).
Analysis of the main variants for non-stop traffic on urban highways.
As a whole, all strategy of local authorities of the large cities of various countries on fight against excessive load of roads can be divided into three interdependent blocks. First, it is measures which are urged to stimulate refusal of using privately owned vehicles in favor of public transport. Secondly, creation of an efficient road infrastructure for fast movement of those motorists who defied advices and took the wheel of the personal car. Thirdly, system development available to each motorist of information about a situation on roads which allows them to go round "jams".
Different methods for the organization of more or less normal driving are used in various cities. Their list, is generally consolidated to the following: paid entrance, paid parkings, paid roads, development of a network of public transport, automated control system for traffic which regulates operation of traffic lights, multi storied outcomes, platforms, selection of special lanes, various restrictions and bans, adaptive network control by transport and foot streams, satellite navigation, cell phones, computers, sensors, prediction of jams, cruise monitoring (something like the simple autopilot supporting the given speed of the car), construction of a network of extra street high-speed highways, construction of detours of the cities.
It is clear that the measures stated above of streamlining of traffic recognize silently inevitability of jams and congestion in all cities of the world and fight against jams in various ways in the most efficient parts is reduced to bans and restrictions.
As a whole hopelessness of this fight for which are spent huge funds, is clear from this that the park of cars grows higher rates, than the extent of roads. In other words, no one wishes to refuse from privately owned vehicles more likely on the contrary.
Besides, roads and transport streams are subject to influence of climatic factors. Therefore the roadbed should be repaired systematically, and snow drifts or heavy rains lead at once to emergence of jams.
At this the enormous number of cars in jams and congestion which are throwing out the increased volume of the harmful exhaust, causes irreparable injury to human health and pollutes the atmosphere, without speaking about noise.
The economic damage from jams and congestion, various restrictions of traffic, unnecessary expenses hardly gives in to calculation and makes astronomical figures.
If not to consider various exotic and expensive ways of the solution of motor transportation problems, they are reduced, first, to increase in density of a road network across the construction of new and expansions of available roads; secondly, underground tracks, tunnels are constructed, i.e. a development goes down on vertical; thirdly, the construction various, including multi storied platforms, i.e. the development up on vertical is carried out.
The first path cannot solve a problem as the increase of a network of land roads is expensive, slow and significantly lags behind an increase of cars. Though it should be noted that the parallel and square system of roads which has developed in New York allows going round congestions of cars which were formed for some reason.
The second path is even more labor-consuming, expensive and it can be only auxiliary.
The third path as, for example, in Tokyo or New York, unloads land highways in many respects and it is rather inexpensive, but it does not solve a problem of jams because the same jams for the same reasons are formed on the same platforms, as well as on land roads in rush hours. The same belongs and to the last novelty of the German firm StrassenHaus Ltd. The firm suggests laying highways for cars upon roofs of houses.
At this we will note that all three mention ways influence on a throughput of highways very poorly.
It would seem that if, relying on all world experience, it is impossible to find a technical solution of a problem, so to it and to be at the level of administrative decisions generally. How can you do it?
It appears that the decision can be rather prime and inexpensive if you can develop the design of light platforms in some storeys with efficient system of internal and/or external crossings from a storey on a storey with preservation of high-speed movement of cars in the range 60 – 90 km/h. In this case cars even at their large number are being redistributed easily upon storeys with the greatest possible package density (the throughput of the quadri-storeyed 14-lane highway-platform makes about 30 000 cars per hour or 720 000 cars per day). The probability of formation of jams is minimized so how the blocked lanes on this or that storey you can go round upon buffer lanes or upon other storeys.
Thus, elevated multilevel road constructions in the form of highways-platforms with crossings between storeys, i.e. with the levels connected with each other, are by this solution. Their throughput is several times above, than the throughput of highways operating nowadays. Besides, reserve-technical (buffer) lanes are entered on each storey of this new road construction. It is difficult to arrange non-stop movement of vehicles without these buffer lanes [1, 2].
Both of these innovations (interstorey crossings and buffer lanes) in total as well as use in case of an unexpected overload of the highway of a known technique of controlled entrance - "ramp metering" , provide the non-stop movement practically of any number of cars at any time, irrespective of arising accidents or being made repair work.
Highways-platforms can be installed at first on entrances-departures of the large cities in a year - two if to arrange production of standard sections of highways-platforms from metal rolling.
Highways-platforms also can be installed, at radial and ring planning of the city, on its main radiuses and further highways-platforms can be connected in one or several places by rings that creates the uniform high-level network, similar to the subway, only for the cars, doing journey around the city fast, without jams and congestion, with the free entry into the city and departure from the city .
Separate storeys or a storey of a network of highways- platforms can be given for movement of small-size road trains or electric trains - elevated analog of the subway, thereby, having given opportunity to people without cars quickly and cheap to move, without going down under the earth, on the considerable distances around the city as highways-platforms can be installed over all main land and railway lines of the city .
It should be noted also that the closed highway-platform does not allow an exhaust to come to light, and air inside a platform can be cleared by the powerful converters for a long time released by the industry. Noise from cars does not go beyond the closed platform. Besides closed from above and on each side the roadbed is not subjected to influence of environment and does not wear out almost. Thus, as well as at bridges, the resource of a platform makes more than 100 years.
The considerable number of inexpensive parking spaces can be provided on platforms therefore many cars cannot leave at all these constructions.
As for cost, for example, square meter of the route StrassenHaus Ltd. costs 1600 euro whereas the square meter of the considered highway platform out of metal rolling with the protective coating (lanes can also be covered with steel- fiber-concrete) costs about 150 dollars, i.e. more than ten times cheaper. As a whole, their operation is cheaper also.
Besides, any country of the world at project introduction in two-three years can already bypass all countries of the world upon movement automation on highways because practically without expenses in closed space of a platform movement without participation of drivers easily be organized whereas it is supposed that personal rapid transport (PRT), expensive and not too efficient, will be introduced massively only through the decades.
The problem is worth to consider possibilities of the fastest realization of this simple, reliable and efficient form of road constructions taking into account that on the sources published in the press the damage from traffic jams (2010) only in Moscow in a year make averages $1.5 billion, Moscow area - $4 billion in a year, and in the USA – about $80 billion in a year.
Besides, the control system of movement of cars on highways-platforms with use of reserve and technical (buffer) lanes and opportunities to control (to limit), if necessary, entrance of cars on the highways-platforms for preservation of high-speed unceasing movement can be used and on land highways in two different modifications - on highways without traffic lights (without intersections) [2,5] and on highways with traffic lights (with intersections) at the organization of traffic of cars in the latter case as columns (pools) [2,5]. It will raise their throughput in 1.5 – 2 times.
Thus, the problem of movement of the population in megalopolises can be solved rather quickly, simply and without enormous expenses which are now planned in road and transport branch, but hardly will be productive.
Losses from jams, accidents, air pollution by exhaust gases on highways of cities of the world. Their annual value. Assessment of possibility of essential decrease in these losses.
Ascertain of losses from traffic jams, the road accidents, air pollutions by exhaust gases on the example of Netherlands. Possibility of essential drop of these losses.
1. Real losses from jams and congestion in Netherlands and a way of their essential decrease.
The road network of the Netherlands, as a rule, is overloaded in rush hours on the working days. Extent of a network makes 112 thousand kilometers. Fight against jams in the Netherlands is complicated by that in the densely populated country there is no place for expansion of a road network.
Losses from jams and congestion each year, and it is losses of time and fuel for the most part, make more than 3 billion euro ($4 billion) (dare.ubvu.vu.nl).
The Netherlands is the transit country substantially. Freights from the ports of the Netherlands diverge on overland lines further. Therefore it is important to create a condition for unceasing movement on these routes without broadening lines, i.e. without land acquisition.
The proposed design solution allows over the main lines crossing the Netherlands, or near them as it is made on Taiwan, quickly to install light weight two-storey highways-platforms on a steel framework (covered from above from a rain) with buffer lanes and crossing between storeys and to organize on these platforms unceasing movement of cars, having left land highways for journey of cargo transport.
In this case some more two levels of the highway-platform except the land autobahn will appear. It will provide several times higher throughput of lines. Buffer lanes and interstorey crossings on highways-platforms will provide unceasing movement of cars, and specifics of the design of the highway-platform do possible carrying out repair work on it without a stop of movement of cars as cars can go on other levels of a platform.
Besides, the regular entrances and the entries mounted on highways-platforms with necessary intervals depending on the district, allow cars to drive to them or to move down from them where there is such requirement, unlike land autobahns. And it does not influence in any way for the speed of movement of cars upon highway-platform lanes. Besides, the design of highways- platforms allows cars to go upon them without participation of drivers according to the appropriate computer program practically any distance.
If to close highways- platforms not only from above, but also on each side and to establish exhaust fans with dischargers into the formed volume of platform for conversion of a harmful exhaust in neutral components, the road construction becomes ecologically save. Metal highways- platforms are quickly mounted (some months) out of in advance prepared standard blocks and elements and can be operated without overhauling more than 50 years.
Extent of these highways-platforms and their throughput has to be sufficient for passage of cars through the main directions of the country. It can be easily provided at the rate of available and predicted traffic.
These elevated highways, almost not occupying the land spaces, can be installed upon all main directions of the Netherlands throughout 1500 kilometers. At costs of 1 km of an eight-lanes two-level highway-platform with top – parking – storey and with powerful purification installations in $7 million, installation of these closed, ecologically safe (pure) highway- platforms with increased throughput and non-stop traffic can be estimated at $10.5 billion. Efficiency of highway- platforms is explained by ensuring unceasing movement of cars by them (without emergence of traffic jams), irrespective of possible accidents or repair thanks to bypass of places of accidents on a buffer lane or moving of cars on other storeys along the external crossings installed on a highway-platform or along internal crossings. Thus the speed of movement of cars is supervised and it don't decrease below the set limit, for example 40 (60) km/h. Stoppers on highway- platforms of similar design don't arise, and the throughput at remaining of high-speed mode not less than 40 (60) km/h is provided for each lane about 2000 cars per hour. It makes for eight-lane highway-platform in aggregate 16 000 cars per hour (384 thousand cars per day).
In this regard the most part of drivers will prefer to pass with a high speed, without stops on highways platforms where jams do not arise.
Thereby, the specified size of real losses owing to emergence of jams in the Netherlands can be reduced, at least, half - to $2 billion.
2. Losses from road accident and a way of their essential reduction.
The annual number of victims of road accident in the Netherlands average in recent years makes: dead – 700, wounded – 27 thousand (demoscope.ru/weekly/2011/0485/biblio01.php)
About 2% of gross domestic product ($800 billion in 2010) of the country make now losses from road accident - about $16 billion. www.swov.nl/rapport/Factsheets/UK/FS_Cost.)
At installation in the country over its main land highways of multilevel highways-platforms with crossings between storeys and the organization in them of unceasing movement of the most part of cars (90% of all vehicles), and the division at different levels of the main transport streams and flows of pedestrians, as well as the equipment of highways-platforms by the special equipment (regularly installed fire-prevention systems, systems ventilation, reserve descents and entries, watch systems, computer traffic control, controlled entrance on lanes) for the maximum safety, the number of financial losses from road accident has to be decreased, at least, twice – to about $8 billion.
For this purpose it is required to install, at least, two-storeyed eight-lane highways-platforms with a general extent 1500 thousand km. At costs of installation of 1 km of the eight-lane two-storeyed highway-platform in $7 million the cost of installation of these platforms can be estimated at $10.5 billion.
3. Losses from air pollution which gives an automobile exhaust and a way of their essential decrease.
Ecological expenses from jams and congestion as well as road accidents are estimated approximately at $10ìëðä.
The converters used for fight against harmful exhaust gases from engine of cars, cannot liquidate with guarantee all harmful components of exhaust gas and not on all cars they are used.
Even the term "congestion costs" appeared for the cities under which time losses, pollution of atmospheric air and water, noise loading as well as a destruction of green plantings mean. The cities look for an exit from this situation, but anything the best as a payment for entrance to the central regions of the cities, increase of taxes on cars, expansion of a transport network as far as it is possible within dense building of the cities, etc. was not thought up. Extent of air pollution by exhaust gases from vehicles, 90 % which are passenger cars, hesitates for the cities from 60 to 90 percent. Environmentally safe electric cars, owing to the high cost and lack of a network of their service will force out cars with an internal combustion engine yet no soon. However the problem should be solved.
In our opinion, the solution of this problem substantially is the relocation, at least, cars for movement with a high speed in a network environmentally safe and inexpensive multilevel (2-3 levels) highways-platforms on the basis of metal rolling, extremely reliable and quickly built. If to close them on each side and from above, and in the turned-out volume to establish necessary quantity of exhaust fans with dischargers converting harmful components of exhaust gas in neutral components, the most part of cars for fast (without jams and congestion thanks to a special design of highways-platforms) and economic move will use generally them.
The top level for a parking of cars can be added in the highway-platform for the cities. It will make a construction slightly more expensive, but the considerable part of cars can not leave at all highways-platforms, passing only upon them and parking only on them.
Thus, if the most part of cars moves on multilevel highways-platforms, exhaust gas from them will be almost completely neutralized and will not get to the atmosphere, as well as noise, i.e. more than a half of harmful exhaust gas will be excluded from urban turnover.
At installation in all large cities over their main highways of the closed (environmentally safe) multilevel highways-platforms with crossings between storeys and the organization in them of unceasing movement for the cars, established on storeys of platforms powerful clearing units (fans with dischargers), will convert exhaust gas to neutral components from all cars which are in volume of platforms without its exit out of limits of volume of a platform. The platform shell also excludes a noise exit from cars out of platform limits.
Thus, the share of expenses compensating damage from death of people because of diseases, caused by harmful components of the exhaust gases of cars, will decrease approximately twice and will make about $5 billion.
Annual total financial losses due to traffic jams, deaths at road accidents and air deterioration owing to automobile exhaust.
Annual losses in the Netherlands upon three mentioned components are as follows: first, $4 billion – a real loss, generally it is loss of time for delays in jams and excess fuel consumption; secondly, financial losses at road accident - $16 billion; thirdly, annual compensation of the damage connected with death of people because of diseases, caused by harmful components of exhaust gases of cars - $10billion.
Total amount of losses on all three specified components can be presented as following: $4 billion + $16 billion + $10 billion = $30 billion.
Thus, construction environmentally safe highways-platforms with an increased throughput for cars, worth about $10.5 billion, "will pay off" if to compare it with decrease in losses from jams and other specified components in the Netherlands ($15 billion), given by these highways-platforms, for 0.7 years of their action. Without it annual losses from the jams, accompanying them of accidents and deterioration of air will grow only.
Losses on three specified components in 404 largest cities of 11 countries of the world, their drop at the expense of installation of new road constructions with the organization on them of unceasing traffic, expenses on their installation and an estimate of terms of their payback.
We similarly calculated losses and on the largest cities of 11 countries of the world.
In order to compare of losses on three specified components in the largest cities of 11 countries of the world, to summarize of these losses and to estimate of payback of installation of new road constructions we shall tabulate published and settlement data.
The number of cities.
Direct damage caused by traffic jams
$ Losses due to accidents
Losses due to the exhaust
Billion $ Integral losses.
The length of the flyover.
The installation costs of urban flyovers.
Value of the depressed losses
Billion$ Payback period.
The table shows, the losses arising at lag of growth of a transport network from growth of car sales even in the most developed countries of the world are significant. It should be noted that the general losses in a year make $603 billion upon 404 large cities of the world of 11 countries, and the payback period of elevated constructions in these cities providing unceasing movement practically of any number of cars makes only 1.2 years. It is clear also that the solution of problems is in increase of throughput of highways according to growth of number of cars and opportunity creation of non-stop traffic (without emergence of traffic jams).
The developed design of the new multilevel road construction on base of steel framework with interstorey crossings and buffer lanes can practically correspond to any number of cars which enter on highways, and at the same time it possesses property of creation of unceasing movement. This construction is reliable, effective, inexpensive. It is quickly erected. The most part of passenger cars (90% of all vehicles) can be passing on it in city conditions. Therefore, the main transport losses can be lowered more than twice.
The table shows also that if we compare the cost of installation of highway-platforms with the size of drop of transport losses as a result of their action, then highway-platforms will be paid off on the average in a year.
The two-level highway-platforms for non-stop movement of passenger cars including additional top parking level (city option). The economic estimate.
Let's note at first that single-level platforms and overpasses (bridges) on the overloaded highways that is characteristic for the cities, do not provide unceasing high-speed movement of cars, especially in rush hours, they are bulky as they are under construction of concrete, they are expensive, and their construction is tightened for years.
The city halls of the cities of Russia, as well as other countries, also try but while unsuccessfully, to solve a problem of the jams leading daily to astronomical losses. Besides, highways of the cities, in particular, and because of the car congestion make the significant contribution to pollution of the atmosphere of the cities by a combustion gas.
In Moscow and the majority of other megalopolises there is no cheap elevated subway.
\The large cities, regions, various countries still are not connected by transport corridors on the basis of inexpensive compact elevated constructions in the form of the two-level pile combined platforms. In a single volume are taken place railway tracks, car lanes, pipelines, communication links and other technical lines. Similar inexpensive, reliable and efficient road constructions could provide unceasing movement of transport and respectively - in tens times cheaper delivery of the freights packed into containers.
We proposed the well-timed, simple and inexpensive solution of the specified transport problems which main feature is the organization of unceasing movement of trains, cars, various environments, etc. in one compact space, in the form of described below in brief reliable two-level road pile elevated constructions which besides quickly gather on a steel framework [1,5,6].
The main difference of new, ecologically safe road constructions – the closed two-storey platforms on a steel framework and with the steel span sites, covered steel-fiber-concrete, keeping high-speed, for example 60-100 km/h, mode for vehicles, preferably automobiles, due to use of an advanced technique of "ramp metering" [1,3,5], - is them many times a larger throughput as well as ability without jams and jams to carry out transport streams, ability to separate the main stream of cargo and passenger transport from the main streams of passenger cars and by that to provide fast and non-stop movement of transport. Technically this problem is solved by crossings between storeys, buffer (reserve and technical) lanes, the entrance traffic lights controlled by radars. At the same time the lane here is 2-4 times lower at prime cost ($0.6-0.9mln. on 1 km) lanes of the land highway (known, according to Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, average costs of construction of 1 km of the land highway in the USA make $2 million, in Germany - $4 million, France – more than $3 million, Russia – $1.5 million).
On operating elevated multilevel platforms cars cannot move from one level to another if one level is overloaded, and others or another are free. However unless there is no opportunity to connect these levels!?
The number of lanes and their throughput are not coordinated with possible peak of cars driving on platforms. But practically any number of cars can be passed on the highway at sufficient for them number of lanes and according to a sufficient throughput.
However, as we know, throughput falls several times with formation of traffic jams when uncontrollable mass entrance of cars on a highway. Nevertheless, what hindrances exist to make the entrance controllable!?
It is known that any accident on a highway means, as a rule, reduction of throughput of highway, formation of congestion or even traffic jams. It only means that it is necessary to think up a mode of a bypass of these places not somewhere away, and on the same highway.
Standards allow to be used the steel designs at building of bridges and platforms, and on building of skyscrapers was checked that rather lightweight steel framework can reliably hold freight many times exceeding its own weight. Therefore it is possible to mount some levels from steel longitudinal and cross beams on steel vertical support-tubes, having covered them by spans from rather thin steel sheet-plates. The road coating from the materials resolved by standards, for example, rather thin layer steel-fiber-concrete is in turn put on them. From above this simple, reliable and lightweight construction can be closed from snow or a rain by light nonflammable plastic. The similar construction can be quickly installed in the presence of ready blocks and elements by screwing together with a welding minimum. Speed of installation means not only saving of time, but also a minimum of expenses. Therefore costs of a construction in spite of the fact that concrete is cheaper than steel, are lower, than costs of being operated ground and elevated road constructions. As a result all main city and long-distance overloaded highways, and in certain cases and railway lines, can be quickly and cheap "covered" by these constructions [1,2,4].
To form a uniform field of the lanes connected among themselves at different levels it is offered some options of crossings from one level on another - both internal, and external. It allows cars at a speed quickly to be distributed on all numerous lanes of a construction, using on a maximum the throughput of all lanes. For example, the two-level design provides without emergence of congestion and traffic jams (four lanes plus two buffer lanes at the first level and as much on the second) the throughput to 16 thousand cars per hour and unceasing movement of cars at speed not less than 40 (60) km/h [1,2,5].
The number of levels and according to lanes at installation of a highway-bridge can be designed on a known maximum of transport streams that doesn't allow it to be clogged by cars even in rush hours.
In order to the speed of movement of cars on a highway-platform didn't fall below of the set limit (40 or 60 km/h) that means the use of the throughput of the lanes close to greatest possible, traffic lights are installed on entries. They begin to work on a signal forbidding entrance only when speed of cars on the corresponding site of a highway- platform falls below of the set limit on any reasons. It provides free movement of car stream without transformation it to a synchronized transport stream which at speed of 10-15 km/h turns into congestion .
In order to accidents, repair and so forth on the route practically didn't influence the speed of a transport stream i.e. to make it unceasing and high-speed and in this case, two elements of the construction are offered: first, interstorey crossings, above-mentioned, can be used for moving of cars from the storey partitioned off by accident on a free storey or on ground level, secondly, the buffer (reserve-technical) lanes is entered at each level with edge. They are intended only for bypass of places of accidents or repair as well as for entrance on lanes or departure from lanes. Some rise in price of the design at the expense of addition to interstorey crossings and buffer lanes is many times compensated by lack of traffic jams on it [1,2,5].
It is shown below how cars can move ongoingly on a platform thanks to application of the wavy flattened lane which is adjacent by the one flattening at one level with a smooth single-level lane of one storey, and by the following flattening it is adjacent at another level with a smooth single-level lane of another storey.
Use of a volume platform only for automobile transport does it lightweight and inexpensive. Use of factory standard sections does it quickly assembly (folding) and convenient for transporting to another place. Its number of storeys can decrease and increase, respectively and the throughput as well can change to 90 thousand cars per hour.
Owing to that the throughput of a lane depends on a flow rate and its maximal value with slight deviations lies in the field of 30-100 km/h, we offered to retain a flow rate exactly in this interval of speeds.
Besides, the transport stream is sparse at these speeds on city highways where cars often change lanes. In other words, the transport stream is in a condition of a stream of the unbound particles at which cars have opportunity to maneuver. However, in this case the throughput of one lane with theoretically possible value (the 3000 thousand cars per hour for a synchronized stream) falls up to 2000 cars per hour. Similar procedure of retaining of a stream in the specified interval of speed and, so the corresponding density, is made both on platforms, and on operating highways by the principle of the controlled entrance offered in the USA more than 40 years ago (ramp metering) . As a result, the transport stream is not condensed and its speed does not fall up to 10-15 km/h when congestion emerge there, and behind them jams. In other words, it is offered not to fight against jams in the different ways, on what now absolutely useless the astronomical sums are spent, and it is necessary to adhere to a mode of the free stream at which jams do not arise and not to forget about the organization of a detour of places of accidents.
However the American technique has that shortcoming that it works locally and therefore in the USA as well as at us, the problem of jams is actual, and annual losses from them in the USA reach $80 billion.
We, in order to avoid stream braking, in addition to controlled entrance (ramp metering) suggested to enter a through buffer lane from the right edge on movement on the highway, having solved at once some problems:
a) the stream is not braked by cars driving to the highway or moving down from it through a buffer lane because the buffer lane is intended not for movement of vehicles, and it is reserve and technical (it is intended for entrance-entry of cars or a detour by them places of accidents or repair), and cars after the entrance on it and the corresponding acceleration quietly put in a rarefied stream of cars on lanes; in the same way before the departure of a highway, cars, without reducing speed, and, so without braking a stream, move to a buffer lane to move down quietly from it on a back road or the street;
b) If an accident occurs on lanes which at one-way traffic on highways, as a rule, from three to five lanes, the empty buffer lane is partitioned off by cars in rare instances. Therefore on it as well as on other lanes, which have remained outside accidents, cars can continue movement, and the flow rate is possible to retain even in case of road accident of not less set limit, for example 60 km/h due to automatic turning on of traffic lights forbidding entrance (a temporary ban of entrance on the highway up to the regaining of a flow rate by the close to maximal) on entrance sites previous the place of accident; on rather narrow highways-platforms (two lanes into one party) the regular interstorey crossings are mounted or injected for an insurance except buffer lanes – so at possible blocking of a buffer lane it is possible to move beforehand to another storey of a platform or to move down on land level, having avoided thereby jam emergence.
Similar measures were not undertaken anywhere still owing to what the stream was condensed with all ensuing consequences (congestion, jams, accident). The stream is condensed always at an everyday overload of highways in rush hours in the cities.
As for questions of the notification, routing, they are solved long ago and it is possible to borrow them simply, just as these or those options of movement without participation of drivers that it is really convenient to do in restricted limits of a platform-highway.
The overload of the highway will not arise if the throughput of the highway is sufficient for almost any transport streams and, in particular, there will be not less, than a number of the cars aiming to the highway in rush hours. However in rush hours the number of the cars aiming to highways operating now, exceeds possibilities of its lanes often several times. From here fast condensation of a car stream arises, there emerge congestion and jams.
Therefore we suggested first to use maximally possibilities of each lane on operating highways, having transferred them to a mode of unceasing movement with a throughput on the average on highways without intersections 2000 cars per hour on a lane and 1250 cars per hour on a lane of highways with intersections whereas now the throughput of a lane of the highway with adjustable intersections (start - stop movement) makes averages 500 cars per hour.
Secondly, we suggested to arrange lanes above each other and to connect them interstorey crossings, having received thereby a new design of a platform-highway with a set of the lanes distributed on storeys connected by crossings that allows to be made practically unlimited a throughput of a platform-highway.
Annual losses from jams, road accident and pollution of city air by combustion gases in several hundred large cities of the world are given above. These figures are so great that cannot be compared to costs of installation and equipment in the cities of the platforms-highways offered by us for unceasing movement of vehicles.
Calculations, from which follows that costs of provision of energy of purifying devices are insignificant, are given below, and exhaust fans with dischargers – converters of a harmful exhaust are produced long ago and their regular installation in the ratio the cost of the installed devices and prime cost of a platform is besides insignificant.
Therefore even if these new road constructions would be even more expensive, they need all the same to be installed. But, for luck, the ghost effect of this development is its comparative low cost.
In particular, the lane on a two-level platform-highway from metal rolling on a steel framework costs several times less, than a lane of the land highway in the USA, France.
Moreover, assembly by screwing together of standard steel blocks of a platform with their installation on a steel framework is produced by the corresponding preparation very quickly. For an example we will note that recently in China collected from standard blocks and equipped a skyscraper on a steel framework in two weeks.
It indicates not only the considerable decrease in all expenses for installation of a platform, time-dependent, but also opportunity quickly enough to carry out new highways not only in the cities, but also between them, at least in the main directions especially as the road network in the majority of the countries of the world is developed poorly.
Platform-highway on a steel framework is not the plane or the ship, and only pipes, beams and metal sheets in assembly. The offered platform is one of the most simple in the technological relation of constructions. It is enough to fulfill particular features of assembly and installation on one experimental exemplar and it will be possible to cover all main transport directions in the world with inexpensive, quickly combined highways with unceasing movement of vehicles. In particular, the overpass in the form of a two-level platform on which it would be possible to fulfill and test all technologies and techniques without larger time and financial expenditure  could be such exemplar.
Let's note also a problem of the common throughput of all elevated constructions which in a rectilinear form has the beginning and the end, i.e. points of concentration of transport on which average speed of car movement has to fall and then congestion and jams are formed.
Actually, this problem is far-fetched. As a rule, the through platforms of the offered design are installed in the cities. These platforms are begun in one suburb and coming to an end in another suburb from the opposite side. They can bend around the downtown not to affect its sight. The overwhelming part of cars within the city in the presence of enough frequent entries leaves the highway not so endpoints. These points are in the suburb and the few cars reach theirs.
So these endpoints are not more by points of concentration. Further, except through highways-platforms ring platforms can be installed. They have no points of concentration of transport at all as they have no ends. As for a possible joint of highways, in particular, in South Korea the option of joints for multilevel platforms  is offered. But, naturally, can be and other options of joints. And even, if to allow emergence of points of concentration, the speed drop problem on all highway is solved and described by us in the present work as it is the same case of emergence of congestion. It is decided by application of our improved technique of «ramp metering», i.e. by the application of controlled entrance with use of the through buffer lanes .
t should be noted that the concrete unwieldy supports are not used in a steel pile design, and steel pipes of rather small diameter are applied (they are steady at earthquakes), and rather small weight of spans from metal rolling covered with a thin layer of steel-fiber-concrete or another lightweight paving allows to install supports far apart as well as to use, at desire and opportunities, poles. Besides, the concrete bases for steel support pipes for the most lightweight platforms on the basis of metal rolling can be not used, and it is simple to drive in or screw in support pipes into the earth. This technology is well developed already.
It is clear also that the design consisting of rather cheap metal rolling, 80 which % is made from thin metal sheets for spans, and other 20% of metal rolling are beams and pipes, is one of the cheapest road constructions as a whole, and the cost of its lane will be several times lower than the cost of a lane of land highways not only because platforms gathers quickly from standard metal sections on bolts with a welding minimum but also because the number of lanes in a projection to the basis at it is two-three times more, than at the land highway on the same area.
Lanes and buffer lanes in the form of span sites are laid on vertical and horizontal supports. Unceasing movement, even at emergence of obstacles in separate sites of the highway-platform, is provided with possibility of moving of the vehicle on buffer (a reserve and technical) lane or on another storey of the highway-platform upon interstorey crossings. Entrance sites and entry sites as well as interstorey external crossings are placed on each side platforms.
The highway platform settles down along a highway axis, but can be taken from it aside if necessary.
The total number of lanes is defined by number of storeys and storey width. The interstorey distance makes size, sufficient for the free journey of cars. In particular, height between two levels for passenger cars makes about 2.5 meters, the width of a lane as well as a buffer (reserve and technical) lane makes about three meters.
The highway platform represents the framework consisting in a cross section from two vertical supports (for option with oncoming traffic) or one vertical support (for option with one-way traffic) and the transversal supports fastening on vertical supports. Height of vertical supports is defined by number of storeys of a platform and an arrangement over a roadbed. If the first storey of a platform is located over railroad tracks, its height makes 7.2 meters, if -over a highway, - 4 meters.
Thus, height of a 2-storey platform from land level to a covering of the second storey makes respectively about 10 meters. Assembly of the highway-platform is carried out, as a rule, with application of lengthy designs with small number of vertical support. Each storey of a platform leans on the longitudinal and transversal supports fastening on vertical supports.
Span sites from metal sheets-plates keep within on supports. Rather thin film steel-fiber-concrete (not less than 50 mm) is applied on them as a paving. If the bottom level of the highway-platform is supposed to be used and for journey of heavy-load transport and buses, steel sheets-plates of span sites are strengthened by ribs of rigidity (orthotropic plates).
The highway-platform is elevated part loaded the considerable proportion of days of the city highway.
Ramps and external interstorey crossings are situated according to a street network of the city as a matter of convenience driving through the highway-platform of cars. The parking storey is mounted over the second level of platform. Ramps for cars to the parking storey can be implemented with both storeys of platform and ground level. At this the parking storey can be expanded, and on each side platforms can be mounted padding pads for a parking.
On each side and from above the highway-platform in this option is closed by a lightweight non-combustible transparent envelope, and in the formed volume exhaust fans with dischargers for neutralization of harmful components of a combustion gas regularly are installed that does the highway-platform by a ecologically safe road construction and reduces extent of air pollution in the city.
The through passage of cars is forbidden on buffer (reserve and technical) lanes as they are used for preservation of non-stop movement, in order to avoid formation of congestion, i.e. only for a detour of places of accidents or repair as well as for entrance on lanes and departure from them.
Lateral areas of the highway-platform are protected by shock-proof designs for driving safety.
Thus, the car can drive on any storey and according to indexes of traffic density to move on it or to move to another storey and easily to move on a lane with a speed 40(60)-90(100) km/h as in case of accident on lanes, the car can bypass the place of accident or upon a buffer lane, or move to another storey.
Design features of the highway-platform assume a manufacture of all its elements by production way. Therefore practically all installation and construction works, generally assembly, are made on places of a construction of platforms. To collect and equip a design 5 - 10 km long with the corresponding supplies and interstorey crossings in the presence of the necessary inventory, the ready blocks, the corresponding experts and carrying out preliminary preparatory work it is possible within several months.
One km of a platform with a parking and purifying devices can be estimated at $7-7.85mln. or 1m² lanes at their area 24000 m² costs $330, and 1ì² of the complete area of span sites - 54000m² - costs $145). At this the prime cost includes the cost of all materials, manufacture of standard blocks, their delivery, a salary, cost of preparatory work, cost of lease of machines and mechanism for assembly, the cost of exhaust fans with dischargers, etc.
So low costs of installation of a platform are explained that it is gathered quickly, its assembly from the standard blocks produced in advance by a production method, in the presence of the prepared place of assembly and exercise of assembly by screwing together of blocks with a welding minimum, takes in total 2-3 months, instead of 2-3 years as it happens, as a rule, to construction of unwieldy ferroconcrete platforms. This circumstance in the basic increases expenses very significantly on a salary, inventory rent, etc. that is reflected on greatness of expenses for construction of standard ferroconcrete platforms.
To eliminate misunderstanding of how is reached this low prime cost, we will note the following.
First of all, it is necessary to have the arranged production of standard sections and blocks of platforms. Sections and blocks have to be delivered in due time to the prepared place for their assembly generally by bolted connections by means of the prepared team of experts in the presence of the corresponding inventory and mechanisms.This procedure according to in advance known scheme occupies the small interval of time depending on extent of a site. Installation of a pile framework from hollow pipes as well does not take a lot of time of that pipes are driven to pre-determined points according to data of ground investigation and schemes of the laid city communications. Traffic at these operations on land highways is not interrupted. Known and long ago the fulfilled procedures of drawing of the corrosion-resistant coating, a waterproofing, steel-fiber-concrete, etc. as well last not for long at the corresponding training of specialists and a material as the installation of lateral walls and a roof. Platform equipment by inventory and devices, such as entrance traffic lights with radars and controllers, light sources, video recorders, communication links, a board, sensors for monitoring, the fire-fighting and evacuation equipment, the watching centers, helipads, various accompanying equipment in the form of cables and pipelines as well cannot be long if such inventory is delivered to a place of assembly in time. Thus, procedure has to be fulfilled up to details, preparatory work has to be made, leased machines and mechanisms have to be ready to work, experts too have to be ready, standard blocks have been made and they have being brought with the necessary frequency to already mounted framework. All this is rather simple if it is in advance fulfilled on the experimental exemplar. After that platforms according to already debugged scheme and available industrial production of standard blocks are installed quickly in defined city and suburb places for "eradication" of jams.
Nevertheless, the main thing is not so specific prime cost of an eight-lane two-level platform-highway with the allocated parking on the basis of metal rolling ($7-7.85 million for kilometer) though it is lower than average prime cost, for example, the six-lane highway in Russia ($10 million for kilometer) or the four-lane overpass in Russia ($30 million for kilometer), - and the solution of the main city transport problems:
- the design of the closed pile two-level platform with crossings between storeys and buffer lanes provides movement practically any number of cars at a high speed, without stops and jams in any weather, i.e. at movement upon new highways of the most part of cars of the city losses due to jams at the general unloading of a road network, thanks to cutting off of the main stream of cars from flows of pedestrians, decrease in noise and penetration in air of exhaust gas will decrease more than twice and, in particular, and platforms-highways will pay off approximately in 1 - 2 years on the average;
- this two-level highway is ecologically safe as in its closed space the exhaust fans with dischargers are installed, besides the closed highway is not subjected to climatic influences, its lanes are not brought by snow and not filled with rain, and the reliable pile design is not collapsed at earthquakes and is not washed away by floods;
- the highway at its small expansion can form a basis and for the cheap elevated subway with its extension on 20-30 km from the city, and its prime cost will make about $7 million for km;
- the steel pile framework, just as framework of skyscrapers, provides to a platform the increased reliability, the closed lanes - the raised resource without repair, and the pile technology provides possibility of laying on any soil and a relief, including if necessary and over houses, other roads, etc.;
- fastness and low cost of installation of regional reliable and effective platforms on a steel framework can exempt all cities of the world from congestion and jams not once in the distant future, and in the nearest years;
- tens, and eventually and hundreds thousands additional parking spaces on the third storey of a platform (it is possible to use in a number of places for this purpose and lateral buildups) will allow not only to facilitate a situation with placement of cars in the city, but also at development of a network of platforms in the city the considerable part of cars will be able not to leave at all limits of a platform and to move upon new transport networks without participation of drivers in driving;
- probably, the basic for the governments will be that introduction of system of non-stop transport communications will allow to save annually practically over each country billion dollars.
Let's note further that the technique of the organization of unceasing movement of cars, i.e. movements without congestion and the jams, developed by us for overpasses and elevated highways is quite suitable and for usual land highways without traffic lights with that restriction that, unlike multilane platforms with the connected levels, the number of lanes on the land highway is rather insignificant and the total throughput of the route also less. However, despite it, under the conditions defined by us and on the land highway it is possible to organize a favorable mode of unceasing movement .
In addition, modernization of available platforms and overpasses with the corresponding increase in their throughput by means of installation of the second metal storey over one-storey platforms will not demand reconstruction of all existing bridges, overpasses, platforms as additional loading of the second storey shall not fall on a modernized design. The second storey out of metal rolling is mounted not on an existing concrete platform, the bridge or the overpass as to a support, and the second storey is mounted on the separate steel framework as though covering an existing overpass, a bridge or a platform.
Combined ferroconcrete span structures of the two-storey highway-platform with eight lanes and four buffer lanes.
Platforms from precast concrete find a wide spread occurrence in construction.
Span structures of ferroconcrete platforms are mounted out of precast seamless span beams being installed on built earlier capital or temporary supports. At this depending on load-carrying capacity of crane inventory one girder, some connected crosswise girders or even the whole cutting span structure can be as the combined block. Such way installation is applied most often in the platforms of girder-cutting or girder and no cutting system formed by unit over supports of cutting beams.
Assembly is carried out by various mechanisms depending on local conditions. If load-carrying capacity allows, assembly is carried out using boom cranes. Installation in span of seamless span beams can be made using the portal cranes moving on express paths along a platform on a surface of the earth. With a big length and height of a platform or impossibility of the arrangement of portal cranes are applied the gateway cranes moving by ready part of a platform and mounting the beams before itself. If platforms pass over water, it is possible to deliver beams to an installation place afloat.
The most preferable is use of gateway cranes for the offered design which installation is made in city conditions at a lack of space.
Enlarging assembly is carried out on a building site. After that collected beams are installed by cranes in design position. Span structures of platforms of no cutting or frame system with spans more than 30-40 meters are mounted out of the short blocks which are installed immediately in span. The simple way of such assembly - laying blocks on continuous scaffolding with their join subsequent by concreting of joints and a tension of longitudinal fittings. Such way demands construction of a large number of a scaffolding and leads to a blockage of sub platform space.
The device of scaffolding only in one span should be considered as more economic. After assembly of a span structure in this span the scaffolding is dismantled and moves to the following span. Improved kind of this way of construction is the method of serial span assembly. Scaffolding represents in this case the special unit which moves from span to span, leaning on supports of a platform and collected part of the structure. Here the construction of a span structure has to be such that unconstrained moving of scaffolding to the next span was provided.
Longitudinal sliding of ferroconcrete span structures is applied at spans 40-60 meters. Upon this method a span structure is collected from separate short blocks and put forward in design position by system of winches or pushing lift jack sets without use or with use of temporary intermediate supports. This way is applicable for girder and no cutting span structures with constant height.
Assembly on approaches of span structures at all length demands rather stretched building site. This is not always feasible in the conditions of the city. The sliding with simultaneous rear assembly at which the design is increased on one block and is pushed out in span or it is assembled for the whole span and only then moves forward on supports is more rational.
The two-storey ferroconcrete platform can be mounted similarly using as a basis the first storey and gateway cranes.
Assessment of the main economic indexes of the two-storey ferroconcrete highway-platform of two-way traffic.
Let's estimate the main economic indicators of a kilometer piece of the two-storey ferroconcrete highway-platform of two-way traffic with four lanes and two buffer lanes. The width of each lane is three meters.
Span sites are mounted on ferroconcrete beams and transversal supports which are installed on ferroconcrete vertical supports-columns (M-400 reinforced concrete brand), fixed in the concrete bases-wells.
Ferroconcrete road plates (M-400 reinforced concrete brand), are maintained by ten rows of longitudinal beams 0.5 meters in high, 0.3 meters in thick between transversal supports: length - 18 m, height - 0.5ì, thickness - 1 m, installed through each 50 meters on columns-supports with the diameter 2 meters (in preferable execution of supports are carried out in section by the ellipse - extended along the highway) and 4 meters in height between each storey. Highway-platform height from level of a land surface to level of span sites of the second storey - about 10 meters.
On two exit is available from each party on each kilometer site of the highway-platform in city execution, on two entrances on the first storey and on one interstorey external crossing - up or down through kilometer, the extent of everyone makes not less than 130 meters, width - not less than 4 meters, span sites of entrances and exits are mounted on beams and transversal supports and all design is supported by three unary columns-supports, interstorey crossings are mounted on consoles. Designs of entrances, exits, crossings can be executed both from reinforced concrete and on the basis of metal rolling with a covering of span sites by a thin layer of steel-fiber-concrete. If necessary over the second storey on metal supports the parking storey from metal spans-plates (6 õ 3 õ 0.008) meters is installed. On each side and from above the design is closed by the transparent or semi diaphanous envelope. Exhaust fans with dischargers for neutralization of toxiñ components of a combustion gas, fire-prevention devices, devices of emergency evacuation, system of irradiating, supervision, a board, etc., including in case of need cycle paths outside are installed regularly in the closed design in city conditions.
Span sites (the width - 18 meters) are assembled out of 1500 standard road plates for each storey (6 x 2 x 0.4) meters. The volume of span sites of each storey - 2520 mᵌ, weight - 6300 tons.
The volume of 200 fifty-meter beams (50 x 0.5 x 0.3) cubic meters on a storey makes 1500 mᵌ, weight – 3750 tons.
The volume of 21 transversal supports (18 x 0.5 x 1.0) cubic meters on a storey makes 189mᵌ, weight – 472.5 tons.
The volume of 42 columns-supports with the diameter 2 meters and height 4 meters makes 525 mᵌ, weight - 1312.5 tons.
The volume of 42 concreted wells-bases for columns-supports (depth - 2 meters and area - 9 m²) makes 756 mᵌ, weight - 1890 tons.
Thus, the volume of a material of one storey without additional entrance sites, exit sites and crossing sites in the form of ready blocks and sections makes 4734 mᵌ, weight - 11835 tons. At the price of one cubic meter of reinforced concrete of the specified brand now in Russia about 9000 rub. ($300) prime cost of ready blocks of a storey of the specified volume makes $1.42 million. The mass of one storey, not including the mass of columns-supports, makes - 10500 tons.
The volume of each of additional entrances, exits, crossings (130 x 4 x 0.14) cubic meters together with three longitudinal beams, (volume of each beam makes (130 x 0.3 x 0.3) cubic meters), three transversal supports (4 x 0.5 x 0.3) cubic meters and three columns-support with diameter 0.5 m of reinforced concrete makes about 100 mᵌ, weight - 250 tons. The volume of six sites makes 600 mᵌ, weight – 1500 tons. Extent of each site (not less than 130 meters) is chosen from calculation that during the lifting or the descent the bias will not exceed 4%.
The mass of both storeys of a ferroconcrete platform, not including the mass of columns-supports of the first storey and mass of wells-bases, makes 23800 tons, and with exception of mass of four entrances and exits – 22800ò.
The volume of ferroconcrete blocks of all two-storey highway-platform (1êì), including wells-bases and additional sites makes: 4734 + 4734 + 756 + 600 = 10824 mᵌ, prime cost - $3.25 million, weight: 11835 + 11835 + 1890 + 1500 = 27160 tons.
The highway-platform is closed in city conditions on each side and from above by the transparent or semi diaphanous envelope out of non-combustible plastic. Fiber glasses can be used as such materials. They are applied for a long time as a constructional and heat-shielding material by production of housings of boats, boats, vessels and rocket engines, bodies of cars, tanks, refrigerators, radio transparent fairings, blades of helicopters, corrosion resistant inventory. At this prices of fiber glass are quite low. As well the transparent polycarbonate of different shades is inexpensive. Non-combustible and noise-attenuating aluminum composite panels – about 1000 rubles for a square meter are a little more expensive. However they do not demand of the maintenance and form the fine design of a construction. The surface of other open sites of the highway-platform can be not painted, and to cover with an anticorrosive layer, for example, in the type of glass-fiber-concrete or to apply to them other latest and inexpensive materials. In various fire-dangerous places it is possible to use coverings from thermally steady carbon composites.
The surface area on 1 km of a two-storey platform without parking (the third) storey with the width of span sites 18 meters, with distance between first and second storeys 4 meters, with height of an envelope over the second storey 4 meters makes about 34000 m². At the price of 1m ² plastic of $10 prime cost of the envelope will be average $0.34 million. Taking into account parking (the third) storey prime cost of the envelope will make $0.42 million.
Other items of expenditure on installation of a highway- platform include delivery of ready blocks; assembly; rent of cranes and other gears, equipment; carrying out preliminary geodetic and other auxiliary works, installation on a platform by the necessary equipment.
It is known that the price of delivery of cubic meter of concrete on distance of 51-55 km by motor transportation makes $33. Thus, delivery of 10824m³ reinforced concrete from plant to a place of installation a highway- platform will cost $0.36 mln.
Assembly of 1 km of a highway- platform together with entries, exits, crossings can be carried out in the presence of the necessary equipment and gears in 2-3 months by 20 specialists at payment of $100 thousand to them.
Rent of gears, including the crane and other equipment for one month will manage in the sum about $100 thousand.
Platform equipment by necessary devices and inventory will take not less than a month and participation not less than 50 experts will be demanded at payment of not less than $100 thousand to them.
The cost of necessary inventory and devices, including regularly installed through each 50 meters) monitors-video recorders, illuminants, fire- fighting equipment, boards, evacuation sleeves, devices and the equipment for monitoring, control units, etc. it is possible to estimate at the sum not less than $100 thousand.
The cost of preliminary geodetic and other by-works can be estimated at the sum not less than $100 thousand.
Taking into account specified articles of additional expenses and expenses on an envelope prime cost of 1 km of the two-storey highway-platform with eight lanes (without parking storey) will increase for the following sum: $360 thousand + $500 thousand + $340 thousand = $1200 thousand and it will make: $3.25 + $1.2 = $4.45 million.
It should be noted: expediently to equip with ventilating devices together with discharge devices in city conditions each storey of a highway- platform for neutralization of toxic components of exhaust gas.
Concerning total volume leaving the muffler of the car of exhaust gases on the average it is possible to be guided by the following figure – one liter of burned gasoline leads to formation about 16 cubic meters of a mixture of various gases.
At speed of car 60-70 km/h about 0.04 liters of gasoline are on the average spent for passing of 1 km of the route by the car and 0.6 m³ exhaust gases are allocated. On one lane of a highway- platform under the most favorable traffic conditions in one hour takes place to 3000 cars which can allocate in highway- platform volume up to 1800 m³ exhaust gases.
On one storey of a highway- platform of the two-way traffic with length 1 km, including 4 lanes and 2 buffer lanes, four times more exhaust gases - to 7200 m³ - are emitted. Therefore, it is necessary to install on this piece of a highway-platform a few gas-converters. As the full volume of 1 km of a storey of a highway- platform for cars taking into account buffer lanes makes 45 000 m³ and in it exhaust gas is being dissipated, it is expedient to install 4 gas-converters the general productivity 45 000 m³/hour. Harmful components of exhaust gases are being neutralized, their content in air of the specified volume of a highway- platform are being reduced to norm, and norms of maximum concentration limit - 3mg/m³.
Gas converters in the form of gas-discharge catalytic installations for purify of 12000 m³/hour of air with the content in it no more than 1000 mg/m³ of organic pollution are known. The cost of the converter makes about $50 thousand. 4 similar converters is required to install on one storey (cost - $200 thousand), 8 - on two storeys (cost - $400 thousand), 12 - on three storeys (cost - $600 thousand).
Installations work effectively at the content of harmful impurity in 1 m³ of air: no more than 1000 mg. On each kilometer of one storey of a highway- platform at the specified intensity of movement can be to 200 cars (to 50 cars on each of 4 lanes) who throw out in 1 m³ exhaust gas about 400 mg of toxic substances. The exhaust gas arriving from cars per hour in volume 7200 m³, is dissipated in air volume of 1km storey of a platform (45000 m³), i.e. the content of toxic substances in 1 m³ air of platform is decreased approximately by 6 times up to 100 mg/m³. And this quantity of harmful substances is 10 times less than limit value of the content of harmful substances (1000 mg/m³) which are capable to remove purify installations of this type from air.
Equipment of the two-storey highway-platform by purify installations will manage in the sum about $600 thousand, three-level - $900 thousand.
Prime cost of a two-storey platform with purify installations will make: $4.45 million + $0.6 million = $5.05 million.
The third – the parking storey is mounted on the basis of metal rolling. Span sites in the form of steel plates (6 õ 3 õ 0.008) meters are laid on metal hollow transversal supports (length - 20ì, diameter - 15 cm, wall thickness - 8 mm) and, are fixed on vertical supports - metal hollow columns (height - 2.5 meters, diameter - 15 cm, wall thickness - 8 mm) which are situated at the distance of 6 meters from each other longwise and - 9 meters cross. At the edges for expansion of span sites up to 20 meters sheets (width - 1 meter) are mounted similar to the specified plates in parameters.
The mass of a span site (length -1 km, width - 20 meters, thickness of plates - 0.008 m, density of steel - 7.8 t/m³) will make: 1000m x 20m x 0.008m x 7.8 t/m³ = 1400 tons.
Diameter of transversal and vertical supports is 150mm, wall thickness - 8ìì, cross section – 2000ìì². Extent of a transversal support makes 20 meters, number of transversal supports – 167. The mass of transversal supports makes: 167 x 20m x 0.002 m² x 7.8 t/m³ = 52 tons. Height of supports-columns is 2.5 meters, number of supports-columns - 501. The mass of columns-supports will make: 501 x 2.5ì x 0.002 m² x 7.8 t/m³ = 20 tons. Mass of supports makes 72 tons.
Thus, mass of a parking storey out of metal rolling is equal approximately 1500 tons. At the price of metal rolling $1000 prime cost of a parking storey will make about $1.5 million. Delivery about 1500 tons of metal designs at the price of delivery of ton by motor transport on distance about 650 km $50 costs about $0.075million and prime cost of the third level will make already $1.575 million.
In the sum the cost of delivery of ferroconcrete and metal designs will make: $0.36 million + $0.075 million = $0.35 million.
At equipment of a parking storey by purify devices and accessories its prime cost will increase to $1.875 million.
About 660 cars can be placed on one kilometer of a parking storey taking into account their passage to parking places.
The weight of 1 km of the three-level highway-platform without taking into account mass of wells-bases and mass of columns-supportû of the first storey will make 25300 tons.
Prime cost of 1 km of the highway-platform with a parking storey and purify devices at all three levels will make: $5.05 million + $1.875 million = $6,85 million.
At least, two entrances, two congresses connecting land and third level of a platform as well as two interstorey crossings connecting the second and third levels of a platform are mounted on each four kilometers of the highway-platform from both parties in city conditions.
The volume of a crossing site (130 x 4 x 0.14) of cubic meters together with three beams (130 x 0.3 x 0.3) cubic meters, three transversal supports (4 õ 0.5 õ 0.3) cubic meters and three columns-support with diameter 0.5m of reinforced concrete on each site makes about 100 mᵌ, weight – 250 tons. Extent of each site connecting two next storeys, - not less than 130 meters - is chosen from calculation that during the lifting or descent the bias will not exceed 4%. Prime cost of a site at the price of cubic meter of reinforced concrete $300 will make $30 thousand. Two sites cost $60 thousand Crossing sites can be executed also from metal rolling and are mounted on consoles.
Entrance or exit site out of metal rolling for connection of land level and the third - a parking storey with a height difference about 15 meters include span sites out of metal plates (4 õ 6 meters in size, thickness - 0.008 meters), transversal supports, columns supports. Extent of each site connecting land and third level of a platform (not less than 380 meters) is chosen from calculation that during the lifting or descent the bias will not exceed 4%.
Span sites in the form of steel plates (6 õ 4 õ 0,008) meters are laid on metal hollow transversal support apart 6 meters from each other. Their length is 4m, diameter - 15 cm, wall thickness - 8 mm everyone. They are fixed on vertical supports – metal hollow columns – with height from 1.5 to 15 meters and with diameter - 15 cm, wall thickness of column makes of 8 mm. Columns situated apart 6 meters from each other longwise. The number of transversal supports makes 63, vertical – 63.
Mass of a span site of a entrance or a exit with length 380 meters and with width 4 m and thickness of plates 0,008 m at density of steel 7.8 t/m³ will make: 380m x 4m x 0.008m x 7.8 t/m³ = 95 tons.
Diameter of transversal and vertical supports - 150mm, wall thickness - 8ìì, cross section – 2000ìì². Extent of a transversal support – 4 meters, number of transversal supports – 63. The mass of transversal supports makes: 63 x 4m x 0.002 m² x 7.8 t/m³ = 4 tons. Height of supports-columns on the average - 8 meters, number of supports-columns - 63. Mass of columns-supports will make: 63 x 8m x 0.002 m² x 7.8 t/m³ = 8 tons. In the sum the mass of supports makes 12 tons.
Thus, mass of exit or entrance from land level on a parking storey (the third level) from metal rolling is equal approximately to 107 tons. At the price of metal rolling $1000 cost of one entrance or exit will make about $0.11 million. Four sites, thus, cost about $0.44 million. The common prime cost of two entrances, two exits and two crossings makes about $0.5 million, i.e. $0.13 million are the share of 1 km of the highway-platform from this prime cost. Mass of two entrances, two exits and two crossings, falling on four kilometers of the highway-platform, makes: (4 x 116ò) + (2 x 250ò) = 964ò. Thus, 241 tons are the share of one kilometer of the highway-platform.
The weight of 1 km of the three-level highway-- platform with two ferroconcrete storeys with ferroconcrete crossings on them and the third - a parking storey out of metal rolling together with the crossings, pressing on 42 concrete supports-columns with diameter 2 meters, makes about 24000 tons. I.e. the total area of columns-supports with cross section 1318800ñì² is exposed to pressure 24 million kg, or one square centimeter is exposed to pressure 18kg. Ultimate strength on compression of concrete (brand M400) makes 393kg/cm². It means that the design has 22-fold margin of safety. On 1 km of the three-level highway-platform of the specified design there can be at the same time about 400 cars in movement at the first and second levels and 700 cars on parking – the third level, i.e. in the sum 1100 cars. If to consider their weight which at average mass of the car 2 tons makes 2200 tons, the design with weight 26200ò will retain the multiple margin of safety equal in this case 20. For 1 km of the four-level highway-platform including another one (fourth) storey for a parking from metal rolling taking into account possibility of presence on it about 700 cars additional load on supports will increase by weight of the fourth storey (1500ò) and weight of the cars which are on it (1400ò), i.e. the common load on columns-supports becomes 29100 tons. Margin of safety will remain in this case multiple – 18.
The complete prime cost of 1 km of the highway-platform at the accounting of prime cost of the additional sites connecting a parking storey to other levels, a parking storey and purify devices at all three levels will make: $5.05 million + $1.935 million + $0.13 million = $7.1 million.
Thus, prime cost of a square meter of spans of three floors (54000m²) will make $140, and in recalculation only on eight lanes with width 3 meters (24000m²) - $300.
At installation of completely equipped three-level highway-platform, for example, in Moscow in the radial direction from the third transport ring to Moscow ring road (10êì) further – in Moscow area – on 15 km (the common extent will make 25 km) its prime cost will make about $177.5 million.
Combined steel spans of the two-storey highway-platform with eight lanes and four buffer lanes. Technique of assembly and economic assessment of a kilometer design.
Spans of the bottom level of a highway-platform of two-way traffic with 1000 m length in the form of steel sheet-plates (6 õ 3 õ 0.008) cubic meters are imposed and fixed on longitudinal and cross bearing parts, height on cross section 200mm, width – 100mm. Longitudinal and cross bearing parts are fixed on vertical supports in the form of metal columns-tubes from 2 up to 4 meters on height, with diameter 30 cm, wall thickness 20 mm. Columns-tubes are settled down at distance 50 meters from each other in the longitudinal direction and - 18 meters in the cross direction. About 2 meters of each column are part of the foundation. Columns can be installed and on a basis from several piles.
The area of spans of the bottom level makes 18000 m², number of steel sheet- plates – 1000. If passage of buses and heavy-load vehicles on the bottom level is allowed, then steel sheet-plates are reinforced. For this purpose the longitudinal and cross ribs having different rigidity are welded on the bottom surface of a flat steel sheet. So ortotropny plate is formed.
The mass of spans of the bottom level by extent 1km and width 18 meters at thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.008 m and density of steel 7.8 T/m³ makes: 1000m x 18m x 0.008m x 7.8T/m³ = 1124 tons. The area of spans makes 18000 m².
Spans of the second level of a highway-platform of two-way traffic by extent 1000m in the form of steel sheet-plates (6 õ 3 õ 0.008) cubic meters are imposed and fixed on steel beams, height on section 200mm, width – 100mm which are fixed on continuation of vertical supports with height 4 meters over the first level of a platform.
The area of spans of the second level makes 18000 m², number of steel sheet-plates – 1000. The mass of spans of the second level with extent 1km and width 18 meters at thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.008 m and density of steel of 7.8 T/m³ makes: 1000m õ 18m õ 0.008m õ 7.8T/m³ = 1124 tons. The area of spans makes 18000m².
The mass of both levels (extent of each 1êì and width of each 18 meters) makes 2248 tons. The area of both levels makes 36000m².
The parking platform (the third level) over the second level of highway-platform of two-way traffic by extent 1000m is executed in the form of steel sheet-plates (6 õ 3 õ 0.008) cubic meters. Sheet-plates are imposed and fixed on steel beams by height on section 200mm, width - 100mm. Beam-bearing parts are fixed on the extension of vertical supports with height 5 meters over the first level of a highway-platform.
The area of a parking platform of the top level makes 18000 m², number of steel sheet-plates – 1000. The mass of a parking platform of the top level with extent 1km and width18 meters at thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.008 m and density of steel 7.8 T/m³ makes: 1000m õ 18m õ 0,008m õ 7.8T/m³ = 1124 tons. The platform area makes 18000m².
The mass of spans of interstorey crossing by extent 150m and width 4 meters at thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.008 m and density of steel 7.8 T/m³ makes: 150m x 4m x 0.008m x 7.8T/m³ = 37 tons. The span area of crossing makes 600m². The mass of eight metal consoles – steel beams with length 4m everyone, height on cross section - 200mm, width 100mm makes 0.7ò as for this type of beams the mass of a beam with extent 44.7m correspond 1 ton. The mass of longitudinal beams with length 150 m makes 3 tons. Total mass of steel interstorey crossing makes 41ò. The mass of two crossings from the first level up to the second level of a platform makes 82ò, and the area - 1200 m². The mass of two crossings from second level to third level make 82ò, and the area of two crossings makes 1200 m². On the average crossings are mounted on one-two kilometer of extent of a platform for city highway-platforms.
The mass of entry (exit) from ground level up to the first level of a highway-platform with extent 100m, width 4 meters, thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.008 m and density of steel 7.8 T/m³ makes: 100m x 4m x 0.008m x 7.8T/m³ = 25tons. The area of spans of entry makes 400m². The mass of two cross bearing parts – steel beams with length 4m everyone, height on cross section - 200mm, width 100mm makes 0.2ton as for this type of beams the mass of a beam with length 44.7m correspond 1 ton. The mass of longitudinal beams with length 200 m makes 4 tons. Total mass of steel entry (exit) makes 30ò. Mass of two supports-columns makes about 0.5 tons. The mass of two entries (exits) makes 60ò, and the area - 800 m². On the average entries (exits) are mounted on one-two kilometer of a platform for city highway-platforms.
It is expedient to join entry (exit) directly to the third – parking - level for of cars in a number of places. Entry or exit from rolled metal for joint of ground level with level of a parking storey at difference of heights about 9 meters include spans from metal plates (4 õ 6 meters in size) with thickness 0.008 meters, cross bearing parts, column-supports. Extent of each site joining ground and third level of a platform (about 300 meters) is chosen from calculation that during the lifting or descent the bias didn't exceed 4%.
Diameter of each vertical support-column makes 300mm, wall thickness makes 20mm, cross ection of column on wall makes 17600mm². Number of supports-columns - 42 and their height from two-meter underground part up to level of a parking storey (9m) makes 11.5 m. The total length of columns makes 483m. The number of columns supporting two entries (exits) is equal 4, height of column– from 4 to 2 meters (on the average 3 m). Their total length turns out in round figures 495m. Their total mass makes 68ò.
The extent of beams - longitudinal bearing parts of the bottom level of a highway-platform – makes seven rows with the total length 7000ì, the extent of 21 cross eighteen-meter bearing part-beams makes 378 m, total length of beams – 7378m. Their weight from calculation - 44.7m correspond 1 ton - makes 65ò. The total mass of the bottom level together with horizontal bearing parts makes 1289ò.
The total mass of three levels and horizontal bearing parts makes 3900ò.
The total area of all spans of a kilometer highway- platform of two-way traffic, including two crossings, two exits, two entries makes 38800 m².
The total mass of steel blocks and elements of a highway- platform makes about 4110ò. At the price of one ton of rolled metal $1000 the cost of steel blocks and elements of a highway- platform will make $4.11mln.
The mass of blocks of the highway- platform making load of supports-columns is equal 3959ò.
All spans of the first and the second levels as well as parking platform (if necessary a parking platform can be transformed to level for through passage of passenger cars) of highways-platforms become covered, at least, by five-centimetric layer of road coating – steel-fiber-concrete. The total area of spans of a highway- platform makes 56800m². The volume of a steel-fiber-concrete coating makes 2840m³, weight – 7100 T, cost - $0.852 million at price of one cubic meter steel-fiber-concrete $300.
Taking into account the weight of steel-fiber-concrete the mass of a highway-bridge will make 11210 ò and total cost - $4.962 million, and the mass of load on vertical supports will make 11059ò.
The covering of open steel surfaces about 56800 m² by anticorrosive structure with average cost about $10 for square meter can be estimated in the sum $0.568 million. And water proofer installation on the same area with the same cost can be estimated in the sum $0.568 million.
From above the opened spans and a parking platform are covered with a plastic roof from the nonflammable material. Area of roof and lateral plastic walls makes 33000 m². Its cost at the average price of plastic $10 for 1m² makes $0.33 mln.
42 bases for support-columns (1 õ 1 õ 2) meters will demand 84 m³ concrete. It is worth $25 thousand.
The cost of the specified designs and materials will make in the sum $ 6.450 mln.
Other items of expenditure on installation of a highway- platform include delivery of ready blocks; assembly; rent of cranes and other gears, equipment; carrying out preliminary geodetic and other auxiliary works, installation on a platform by the necessary equipment.
It is known that the price of delivery of cubic meter of concrete on distance of 51-55 km by motor transportation makes $33. Thus, delivery of 2920m³ concrete from plant to a place of installation a highway- platform will cost $0.096 mln. At the price of delivery of ton by motor transport on distance about 650 km - $50 delivery of 4110 tons of metal designs will cost about $0.205 mln. In the sum delivery of designs and materials will cost $0.300 million.
Assembly of 1 km of a highway- platform together with entries, exits, crossings can be carried out in the presence of the necessary equipment and gears in one-two months by 20 specialists at payment of $100 thousand to them.
Rent of gears, including the crane and other equipment for one month will manage in the sum about $100 thousand.
The internal space of a platform, entries and exits are supervised by the telecommunication equipment. These are television cameras or video registrars, switchboards, server. In particular, it is enough 50-60 television cameras for this type of a highway- platform. The total cost of this equipment makes $40-50 thousand.
Illumination of lanes of a platform is carried out by LED sources, for example, 35 watts with luminous efficiency 40 lm/W. The resource of these sources makes about 11years. Light sources don't heat up. Cost of one light source makes about $10. For illumination of volumes of a highway- platform (1 km) there are enough 200-250 lamps. Thus, the cost of lamps makes $2000. The cost of other electrical equipment, including being luminous board-indexes makes approximately the same sum.
It is necessary to consider also the cost of the fire-prevention equipment, evacuation descents, the equipment for monitoring, etc. The total cost of this equipment on 1km of a platform can make about $100000.
Highway- platform equipment will take not less than a month at participation about 20 specialists. It will demand payment of not less than $100 thousand to them.
It should be noted: expediently to equip with ventilating devices together with discharge devices in city conditions each storey of a highway-platform for neutralization of toxic components of exhaust gas.
Concerning total volume leaving the muffler of the car of exhaust gases on the average it is possible to be guided by the following figure – one liter of burned gasoline leads to formation about 16 cubic meters of a mixture of various gases.
At speed of car 60-70 km/h about 0.04 liters of gasoline are on the average spent for passing of 1 km of the route by the car and 0.6 m³ exhaust gases are allocated. On one lane of a highway-platform under the most favorable traffic conditions in one hour takes place to 3000 cars which can allocate in highway- platform volume up to 1800 m³ exhaust gases.
On one storey of a highway-platform of the two-way traffic with length 1 km, including 4 lanes and 2 buffer lanes, four times more exhaust gases - to 7200 m³ - are emitted. Therefore, it is necessary to install on this piece of a highway-platform a few gas-converters. As the full volume of 1 km of a storey of a highway-platform for cars taking into account buffer lanes makes 45 000 m³ and in it exhaust gas is being dissipated, it is expedient to install 4 gas-converters the general productivity 45 000 m³/hour. Harmful components of exhaust gases are being neutralized, their content in air of the specified volume of a highway- platform are being reduced to norm, and norms of maximum concentration limit - 3mg/m³.
Gas converters in the form of gas-discharge catalytic installations for purify of 12000 m³/hour of air with the content in it no more than 1000 mg/m³ of organic pollution are known. The cost of the converter makes about $50 thousand. 4 similar converters is required to install on one storey (cost - $200 thousand), 8 - on two storeys (cost - $400 thousand), 12 - on three storeys (cost - $600 thousand).
Installations work effectively at the content of harmful impurity in 1 m³ of air: no more than 1000 mg. On each kilometer of one storey of a highway- platform at the specified intensity of movement can be to 200 cars (to 50 cars on each of 4 lanes) who throw out in 1 m³ exhaust gas about 400 mg of toxic substances. The exhaust gas arriving from cars per hour in volume 7200 m³, is dissipated in air volume of 1km storey of a platform (45000 m³), i.e. the content of toxic substances in 1 m³ air of platform is decreased approximately by 6 times up to 100 mg/m³. And this quantity of harmful substances is 10 times less than limit value of the content of harmful substances (1000 mg/m³) which are capable to remove purify installations of this type from air.
Twelve installation-converters of exhaust gases cost about $600 thousand.
As a result, costs of installation of highway-platform and its equipment on the specific indicator will make $7.850mln.
Thus the cost of twelve installation-converters makes about 7% from the cost of 1 km of a third-level highway-platform.
The cost of square meter of spans of three levels (54000ì²) will make about $145. And one square meter of a lane (width 3 m) in the presence of eight lanes (24000ì²) will cost $330.
In particular, installation of a similar three-level eight-lane highway-platform in Moscow in the radial direction from TTR to MRH (10km) further in to the suburb of Moscow on 15 km (the general extent of 25 km) will cost about $196mln, and for 16 main radiuses of Moscow and Moscow area - $3.14bln.
It is possible to add to a platform in each movement direction additional tracks for elevated electric trains (the elevated metro) and respectively to add buffer tracks. It will unload the transport system of the city substantially and elevated highways will compete with subway. However specific prime cost of a construction taking into account existence on it additional tracks (4 tracks) for trains and prime cost of each track ($0.650mln) will increase up to $10.5mln.
The mass of a highway-platform having eight lanes and parking level on the basis of rolled metal makes 11059 tons. This weight is loading of 42 steel supports-columns with diameter of each 30cm, cross section 17600mm². Thus 110590000 Newton puts pressure upon the total area of columns of cross section 739200mm², or one square millimeter is exposed to pressure 150n/mm². The design has approximately 4-fold safety margin at limit of durability of steel 600n/mm². Up to 400 cars on the average on 2 tons everyone can be at the same time in movement at both levels of a highway-platform of the specified construction. 660 cars can be on a parking storey. If to consider their total mass which will make 2120 tons, a construction with additional loading in the form of cars and lump near 13179ò, being exposed to the greatest possible loading, keeps the safety margin close to 3.5.
It should be noted, it is possible significantly (to 60%) to reduce the mass of a highway- platform and its prime cost at the expense of exception of a steel-fiber-concrete road coating, without contradicting available standards and norms, having replaced it with new composite coatings from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic or glass-fiber reinforced plastic.
Let's estimate average annual costs of operation of 1 km of the specified platform.
Main articles of expenses: additional equipment and re-equipment; cleaning; servicing, supply of electricity; payment of the necessary personnel.
1. Board-indexes, part of lamps, part of the telecommunication equipment can be annually updated. If to take this annual updating for 10% from the cost of the available equipment of this type ($50000), annual expenses will make $5000.
2. Cleaning of a highway-bridge can be carried out once in two weeks or month seasonally by means of gears with sprays of water and brushes from within and outside like washing of electric trains. These operation expenses are negligible.
3. Estimate of expense of the electric power.
3.1. Annual electricity consumption make about 20 000 kW•hour when seating 160 LED lamps by capacity 35Âò through each 50 meters at levels of a flyover and their inclusion on the average at 10 hours every day for lighting. Payment of this expense of the electric power will make $2000 at the price of the electric power $0.1 for one kW•hour.
3.2. Annual electricity consumption makes about 50 000 kW•hour when seating 160 LED board-indexes by capacity 35Âò at highway-platform levels in a mode of continuous inclusion. At the price of the electric power $0.1 for one kW•hour the payment of this expense of the electric power will make $5000.
3.3. At permanent functioning of air purifiers with general productivity of 135 000 m³/hour with energy consumption near 0.12W/m³ the annual expense of the electric power makes about 142 000 kW • hour. At the price of the electric power $0.1 for one kW•hour the payment of this expense of the electric power will make $14200.
4. Except the above, it is necessary to consider the payment of the personnel serving a platform. As practically all works will be automated so far as this personnel will consist of several people which majority represents emergency crew. The personnel can serve 15-20 kilometers of a highway- platform. Therefore the annual maintenance of these experts, about $100 thousand in size, is reduced per 1 km up to $10 thousand.
5. It is necessary to consider also these or those contingencies. Their size we will estimate in $3 thousand per year.
Thus, the general specific operational costs during one year on the average make about $40000.
For comparison we will provide official data of specific cost of annual operational costs for ground highways in Russia.
According to the "Transportnaya Bezopasnost I Tekhnologii 2005 ¹ 2" magazine catalog ("A problem of safety of the Russian highways") 5 million rubles, or about $170 thousand, i.e $34 thousand per year is spent annually on rescue and recovery operations of 1 kilometer of the highways. These works are carrying out in five years (about 10 thousand kilometers of roads are under repair). Besides annually for maintenance of roads in proper condition is spent 13.7 billion rubles, or about $1000 for one kilometer on the average. In 7 years this sum increased at least on a third.
Thus annual specific operational costs on a highway-platform are quite comparable to expenses on rescue and recovery operations for similar ground highways.
The transformation of highways of major cities in highways with non-stop movement and practically unlimited throughput.
The present technical solution falls into areas of the organization of road movement in the city by means of placement and installation of elevated highways for movement of vehicles on different but the bound levels, in particular, platforms, or elevated highways for movement of cars in the form of the network of highways covering the territory of the city and its next suburbs.
The transport and municipal system of the city (the utility model of Russian Federation. No. 36018) is known. It includes not less than three ring roads, covering city building, and radial highways crossing them. Over highways are placed two level platforms having entrances and exits. One of the specified platforms is allotted for car traffic, preferably automobile transport, and another – for common vehicle traffic. Platforms have a parking, offices, administrative, economic, multipurpose constructions placed on it or over it. Platforms are connected to other platforms, highways.
The weakness of this technical solution consists that it does not provide rather high throughput both for all network of highways, and for separate platforms. The probability of formation on various sites of a network of congestion and jams is the considerable in rush hours as various levels of movement are not connected among themselves and represent only additional highways with restricted number of lanes. Thus, the offered system of highways is not capable to incorporate and pass through itself within a day some million vehicles of the large city, its suburbs and transit vehicles and can serve as only accessory instrument for some decrease in tension of traffic, but a problem of congestion of road networks by vehicles is not solved.
Most the close to a proposed technical solution is the system of motor transportation highways of Moscow (the utility model of Russian Federation. No. 95338). This system contains the elevated many-tier highways located radially and, at least, one elevated many-tier ring highway, and entry into the megalopolis on elevated highways is carried out before megalopolis border with evolution and movement on the junctions-ramps providing isolation from each other of streams of individual, cargo and public transport on, at least, two tiers of the elevated highway. The first tier containing, at least, four lanes, is allotted for journey of cargo and public transport with stops in transport and transfer clusters, and the second tier containing, at least, eight lanes, is allotted for automobile transport, the ring elevated highway crosses all radial elevated highways, radial elevated highways are crossed among themselves. Junctions in a uniform network of elevated highways are executed in places of crossings for public, cargo and automobile transport. Transport and transfer clusters are placed in places of crossings near metro stations and in other places of radial and ring highways. Load-bearing frames of elevated highways are executed with possibility of ensuring operation of land transport in the course of installation of elevated highways.
The weakness of this technical solution consists that it does not provide rather high throughput both for all network of highways, and for certain elevated highways. In this regard at peak loads, i.e. at excess of their maximum throughput by number of cars aiming on them, congestion and jams are formed on them as well on land highways in similar cases. Thus, the continuous high-speed movement of vehicles in a network of highways is not provided.
The task of a proposed technical solution consists in ensuring the continuous movement in city boundaries and its suburbs of almost unlimited number of vehicles with high speed in the directions which have been developed for the city, as a rule, from one sectors of the city and its suburbs in others during tens minutes. The task also consists in ensuring movement of vehicles easily from the suburb to the city in the morning and in the evening from the city to the suburb as well as in creation of conditions for avoidance of jams on all sites of a network of elevated highways by cheapest and effective technical means; in creation of conditions for unceasing movement in networks of elevated highways as well as in use in a network of elevated highways of the city of only ecologically safe sites of highways.
Technical result of the present solution is: high throughput of all sites of a network of elevated highways - 16 thousand vehicles per hour at two storeys, eight lanes, four buffer lanes, interstorey crossings in the elevated highway with two-way traffic; opportunity to continue movement, bypassing places of repair or accidents on these or those sites of elevated highways; opportunity to drive, for example, from the street into a parking platform or at once on the top storey of the elevated highway, and to move down respectively on any or from any storey of the elevated highway; possibility of retain of the continuous movement of vehicles at a speed 30 - 90 km/h in a network of elevated highways; ensuring uniformity of designs of all sites of multi storeyed elevated highways for their fast assembly, installation or transformation; ensuring laying and distributing of multilevel elevated highways practically over any space, in particular over road and railway tracks; ensuring installation of elevated highways both for two-way traffic, and for one-way traffic; ensuring installation of elevated highways of two-way and one-way traffic over the overloaded street and suburban circuits of any type or near them; essential increase of degree of safety of traffic, reduction of noise and air pollution, multiple increases of a resource of all sites of a network of elevated highways as well as their essential reduction in cost both at prime cost, and at operation.
The technical result is reached by that the network of highways for the cities and their suburbs contains the elevated highways distributed on the territories of the city and its suburbs with coverage of all sectors of the city and suburbs, saturated with cars as well as with performance of junctions in a uniform network of elevated highways in places of their crossing, at this elevated highways are installed preferably over ground highways and executed from standard sections with possibility of transformation of elevated highways -– with increase or decrease of their number of storeys, elevated highways are allotted for the homogeneous vehicles, for example, cars, and contain, at least, two storeys, elevated highways are supplied with crossings between storeys as well as parking platforms, elevated highways are connected to a road network adjoining them by entrances from roads or streets on various storeys of the elevated highway as well as exits from it on back roads or streets, and the average throughput of a road network adjoining the highway is coordinated with throughput of the elevated highway and does not exceed its mean value.
Thus, transport streams are divided – one in the form of cars goes to a network of elevated highways, another – in the form of cargo and public transport – remains on ground highways, and throughput of a network of elevated highways can vary over a wide range at the expense of possibility of moving of vehicles from one lane on another and from one storey on another on external or internal crossings and their redistribution on all storeys of the elevated highway. Besides, add-in of a platform on verticals or decrease of number of storeys with use of standard sections and blocks is possible if necessary. Non-stop movement in a network of elevated highways, despite possible hindrances to movement on a lane in the form of accidents, repair work, etc., is provided with a detour of these places by means of buffer lanes or by means of moving of vehicles on the free lanes on this or that storey [1,5].
Thus, it is possible to provide unconstrained movement of almost unlimited number of cars (90% of all number of vehicles on the average) without stopping and with high speed in all main directions in the city and its suburbs due to use in a network of new road constructions in the form of elevated highways in some storeys with crossings between storeys and, thereby, as though to unfold a roadbed not in breadth that already developed city building, as a rule, does not allow, and on vertical, having connected all levels on this vertical in uniform road system and having extended it on all sectors of the city and its suburbs.
Thus coordination of throughput of separate sites of a network of elevated highways with throughput of roads adjoining to them and streets is not difficult as, knowing number of these entrances to this or that site of a network of elevated highways and their throughput as well as knowing approximate number of the transit vehicles passing in rush hours on this site of a network, and similarly, knowing number of exits from a highway site on adjacent roads and streets, it is easy to coordinate the maximal number of the vehicles passed by the elevated highway, with the maximal number of the vehicles capable to move in it and move down from it.
Taking into account it the number of storeys of the elevated highway is selected at a design stage and, at the same time, number of lanes on it which can reach several tens even with not too its big height, for example, height of the five-storey highway of two-way traffic with its width in 12 meters makes 17 meters (height of the five-floor house), and the number of lanes is equal to 20.
To provide non-stop movement on the elevated highway and the smoothly varying entrance of cars to it from adjacent roads as well as the smoothly as well as a smooth exit to the nearby streets, installation corresponding to the maximal value of approaching cars of quantity entrance and exit sites as well as junctions, especially in places of crossing of elevated highways as well as other nodal points of a transport network of the city is provided.
The specified approach is applicable to any city, irrespective of an arrangement of highways which is generally reduced to radial-ring structure as in Moscow or Paris, or system of the parallel highways intersecting under this or that corner with another system of parallel highways as, for example in New York.
The maximum throughput of a lane of a highway with traffic lights (with intersections) makes no more than 800 cars per hour, and on the average – about 500 cars per hour that is confirmed by measuring data. That is per hour one highway having six lanes with traffic lights can pass at most 4800 cars, and on the average it passes about 3000 cars; per day the highway as much as possible can pass about 115 thousand cars, and on the average – about 72 thousand cars.
16 highways can pass per hour no more than 77 thousand cars, and on the average per hour – about 48 thousand cars. That is per day 16 radial highways with traffic lights can pass no more than 1.85 million cars, and on the average pass about 1.15 million cars.
Such, about 500 thousand vehicles from other towns on the average per day are entering in Moscow on available statistics. More than 4 million vehicles were registered in Moscow. The increase in number of cars up to such sizes already caused into rush hours to hour traffic jams and congestion on radial highways as their throughput in rush hours becomes lower of number of vehicles aiming on them.
Thus, 4800 cars per hour are top threshold for each six-lane radial highway with traffic lights and when the number of cars on this highway comes nearer to this value then inevitable traffic jams and congestion are appearing. And they really regularly appear in rush hours.
The top threshold for all 16 radial highways with traffic lights in the sum, or integrally, are 1.85 million cars per day and when the number of cars on these highways comes nearer to this value then inevitable traffic jams and congestion are appearing.
Attempts of normalization of traffic are known. However all these traditional techniques suffer by these or those shortcomings and they can't be recognized as the effective. Let's consider these techniques and we will find out why they don't lead to movement normalization, or to traffic without congestion.
First, it can be administrative restriction of entrance of cars. On this way the city administration of some cities of the world, for example, Singapore, Stockholm went. However other cities don't consider this way accepted as the cars bought by city dwellers mostly as though withdraw from circulation and it doesn't cause in inhabitants of enthusiasm. Nevertheless, for Moscow administrative and restrictive measures can be used within the Garden ring or TTR as it, in particular, is made for the center of London.
Secondly, expansion of highways up to 10 and more lanes is possibly. It is already made or it is planned to make on several radial highways of Moscow. However this way is very expensive if to consider land cost in Moscow, housebreaking, etc. At the same time, a little increasing the throughput of highways at the expense of increase in number of lanes, it doesn't rescue from traffic jams and congestion which all the same arise on highways at excess as it was stated above, defined for highways with traffic lights and corresponding number of lanes of a threshold of passing of cars which isn't so high. For example, this threshold makes only 8000 cars per hour for a ten-lane highway with traffic lights. And increase of the throughput in comparison with throughput of a six-lane highway, despite enormous expenses, makes only 40%. Whereas during rush hours number of cars, aiming to these highways, can be much more.
Thirdly, construction on all radial highways of underground and elevated crossings for pedestrians and cross platforms in order to passing of cross transport flows through highways is possible. In this case start-stop (traffic lights) mode is liquidated and limit throughput in 800 cars per hour on one lane can be theoretically increased up to possible maximum - 3000 cars per hour (real throughput makes about 2000 cars per hour). This throughput is characteristic for unceasing movement at a speed in the range of 30-100 km/h. Thus, the average throughput of a six-lane highway increases from 3000 cars per hour to 12000 cars per hour. However this technique doesn't rescue from traffic jams too. As showed organization similar (without traffic lights) technique on
the third transport ring of Moscow (TTR), it at all wasn't as obstacle for everyday emergence on TTR of congestion and traffic jams.
Fourthly, introduction on roads of adaptive regulation (clever traffic lights) is possible. It is used in many megalopolises of the world. However expenses of introduction of adaptive regulation are considerable and it gives a gain of throughput of roads only on the average about 20%.
Other options of normalization of traffic are also possible. Through platforms, including the organization of movement on roofs of houses (R. Lipp's technology), high-speed trams as it is made in a number of the cities of the USA and South Korea can be them. However congestion and traffic jams are all the same formed everywhere in rush hours as inhabitants of megalopolises don't want to refuse the use of the comfortable cars bought by them. And, as it was shown above, at achievement of the threshold of a pass of cars defined for each highway the traffic jams will being emerge inevitably.
On the average annually in megalopolises the construction of roads and junctions increases their extent or number of lanes approximately by 2-3% a year and throughput grows at the same rate per year on average, adaptive regulation can increase throughput of a road network by 10 - 20% for indefinite time, and the number of cars annually increases by 7-8%.
It means that the above measures for increase in throughput of a road network significantly lag behind an annual increase of park of cars which more and more does not fit in the framework taken away to it. Only the fast increase in throughput of highways many times is able amend situation in the cities.
However only growth of throughput of a road network for the complete normalization of traffic on highways is insufficient as and at a high potential throughput of highways congestion and jams can arise if for a number of reasons, for example, road repair, accidents, the poor number of exits from the highway, etc., falls traveling speed of cars up to 5-15 km/h. And decrease of speed of a transport stream at continuous inflow of cars on the route automatically leads to falling of an actual throughput on this site and to formation at first congestion, and then a stopper.
Therefore it is necessary to create conditions under which movement of a transport stream was not slowed down up to the low sizes at which congestion start arising, i.e. that the speed of a transport stream would not fall lower than 30 km/h.
From all this follows that, first, it is necessary to increase throughput of the main highways, at least, to value, larger than in rush hours, secondly, constantly to retain a mode of unceasing movement of cars without sharp speed drop of a transport stream, at least, not lower than 30 km/h, and thirdly, to provide coordination of throughput of all sites of the high-level network with throughput of entrances adjacent to these sites as well as exits from these sites.
New high-level network has to possess by these properties for normalization of traffic in the cities and their suburbs at a big congestion of cars. Without them the problem of congestion and jams can be solved just by administrative methods.
Above we showed that the proposed technical solution conforms to these requirements. With its use the situation with emergence of jams in rush hours in the cities of the world can be radically and quickly changed to the best.
The network of elevated highways with the lanes deployed vertically in several storeys, or levels with crossings between them, allows by cars to move without stopping from a storey to a storey, completely loading available lanes which can be numerous, allows by cars to bypass the place of accident or repair not only on the next lane, but also on other storeys. In this case opportunity congestion and jams is reduced actually to zero.
The offered high-level network allows to be passed on one lane on the average 2000 cars per hour with a speed 30-90 km/h. Even at the minimum quantity of levels of movement in the presence of only two storeys, the elevated highway of two-way traffic with four lanes in one party and four lanes in another can pass for an hour about 16 thousand cars, instead 3000 cars per hour, as the usual six-lane highway with traffic lights that is equivalent to increase in number of usual lanes on highways with traffic lights almost four times, or to roadbed expansion four times.
The mode of non-stop movement of cars on elevated highways of a network within 30-90 km/h is supported automatically without allowance of sudden speed drop not only due to preliminary coordination of throughput of the corresponding site of a network of elevated highways and throughput of entrances adjacent to this site, but also, in extraordinary cases, due to restriction of entrance of cars on the elevated highway on those sites on which traveling speed falls lower than 30 km/h, by means of the joint system of sensors of speed of a transport stream and entrance traffic lights.
It should be noted that if necessary it is simple to grow the elevated highway, having increased number of storeys up to the 3rd or the 4th or to broaden it, having entered some additional lanes on a storey. It is simple to disassemble also the elevated highway mounted from standard blocks with application generally to operation of screwing together, and to transfer it to another place. Noise do not come to light from the closed elevated highways, combustion gases inside are neutralized by purify devices and do not pass to the city atmosphere, i.e. the new network of elevated highways is ecologically safe.
Besides, the lanes closed from environment are not subject to impact of a rain and snow, the lanes are approximately in one temperature schedule and therefore they practically do not collapse from environment influence, unlike a usual paving of ground highways, i.e. the resource of elevated highways in comparison with the ground highways increases multiply. In addition to it the elevated highway as though covers from above the ground highway from above, protecting its coating substantially from snow and a rain.
In the presence over the ground highway of the elevated highway, practically all cars from interfacing to this site of a network of elevated highways of sectors can "go" to it, and the ground highway can be provided for movement of cargo and public transport. Thus, streets and the roads adjacent to elevated highways of sectors are substantially exempt from cars "gone" in the elevated highway and movement becomes more independent on them.
The network of elevated highways with external and internal entrances and exits provides possibility of entrance of cars for a parking immediately from below on the top platform of the elevated highway or on its wings. In this case on one kilometer of the two-storey elevated highway about 1000 cars can be parked, and prime cost of one square meter of a parking space will make about $100.
At extension of a network of elevated highways for city boundaries on 20-50 km unconstrained and fast entry into the city or departure from it of practically any number of cars is provided.
As for possibility of unconstrained entrance to the elevated two-storey highway of cars, widely developed network of transversal city streets and their exuberant, as a rule, quantity provide entrance to the elevated highway and exit from it 16 thousand cars per hour quite. For this purpose it is necessary to have number of access roads and according to lanes with throughput up to 16 thousand cars per hour. At an average throughput of one lane on roads with traffic lights 500 cars per hour, for example, 32 adjoining lanes – on 16 lanes from each party of the elevated highway - are required on 10 km of the elevated highway whereas the number of lanes of adjacent streets and roads to the radial highway, as a rule, is more. The same belongs and to exits. And even in case of a shortcoming access or exit of sites unceasing movement on elevated highways all the same can be supported without failing, for example, by a temporary restriction of entrance of cars to the highway at their surplus.
Radial elevated highways expediently for a possibility of fast moving since one end of the city on another, without going its central part, to cross, depending on the city sizes, by several ring elevated highways.
We offered and patented in several options a simple and effective construction which quite meets the above conditions [1,2]. One of options is schematically given below. The flattened wavy lane in a combination to interfacing single-level lanes is used in this option concerning interstorey crossings. It provides moving of cars in a volume platform. Another option is schematically given below. External interstorey crossings are used in this case. This option provides moving of cars from sides of a volume platform.
At the same time it should be noted that the highway- platform is closed on each side and from above by lightweight and nonflammable shell and this construction is equipped inside by converters. Converters neutralize the pollution, arriving in air from cars .
Thus, the design of the multilevel highway-platform, at least, in two storeys with a similar configuration of lanes and/or with interstory crossings, allows by cars to move without stopping from a storey to a storey, completely loading available lanes, and giving opportunity to cars to go around on other storeys or on a buffer lane the place of accident or repair, without stopping movement with high speed (i.e. possibility of emergence of jams is eliminated). In this case, on one lane it is possible to pass per hour on the average 2000 cars with a speed 60-100 km/h. I.e. in the presence at the two-storey highway-platform of two-way traffic of 4 lanes and two buffer lanes on each storey (in total - eight lanes and four buffer lanes) its average throughput will make 16 thousand cars per hour instead 3000 cars per hour as it exists now on each city highway with traffic lights (with intersections). Width of such highway platform without possible external interstorey crossings makes 18 meters.
The mode of unceasing movement of cars on the highway-platform within 40 – 90 km/h at force majeure situations also can be supported automatically due to restriction of entrance of cars on those sites where traveling speed starts falling below the limit in 40 km/h by means of the joint system of the corresponding sensors of average speed of transport streams and entrance traffic lights [1,5].
Introduction of one radial two-storey eight-lane highway-platform over the ground highway increases throughput for automobile streams of this city sector taking into account the ground highway in six times that is equivalent to construction of five similar existing ground highways.
To provide coordination of number of moving cars on radial highways platforms with number of cars on ring highways, it is necessary to install number of ring highways-platforms with the common throughput corresponding to throughput of radial platforms-highways. If to take into account that the majority of cars on radial highways seeks moving within the sectors or cars go (enter) to other regions in the direction of each radial highway, throughput of ring highways-platforms can be respectively lowered to level, sufficient for the organization of moving of cars from one sector in another.
The technical solutions providing of non-stop movement of vehicles upon operating highways (without traffic jams).
Despite the high cost of works on movement regulation on highways, the problem of emergence of congestion and jams on them remains not decided that daily practice of car traffic confirms. Applied methods of regulation of transport streams on city highways in the conditions of the essential increase of traffic density caused by the considerable increase of number of cars, ceased to be effective.
Above about these methods of regulation it was told in more detail and the reasons of their inefficiency were found out.
The hydrodynamic analogy – Laytkhill- Whitham's model is used in the theory considering movement of transport streams, till this moment. They wrote in the classical work (Lighthill M.J. Whitham G.B. Proc. R. Soc. A 229, 317 (1955)): "… The main hypothesis of the theory consists that in any point of the road flow (cars per hour) are density function (cars on mile) …". "Byurgers's equation was received on the basis of it and still a number of assumptions and the subsequent generalization. This equation can be considered as Navier-Stokes's scalar one-dimensional equation for incompressible liquid with single density", Semenov V. V. notes .
One of representatives of domestic science about transport streams Afanasyev M. B. also writes: "… movement of a dense transport stream down the street or the road reminds water movement in the channel … the channel of a certain section can pass quite certain amount of water in unit of time. If we want to pass a bigger amount of water via the channel, we have to increase its cross section. Something similar happens and to the transport stream moving on the channel - the street or the road. The carriageway of a certain width can pass quite certain number of cars and if we want to increase its throughput, we have to broaden the road … This analogy gave to experts the bases to apply laws of movement of liquid to studying of regularities of transport streams. Such model, however, with certain restrictions allows to perform important researches and to solve a number of practical questions on movement regulation. " .
However comparison of the results received on this model, with real characteristics of a transport stream showed that this mathematical formula doesn't correspond to anything in real life. The model "liquid on the road" (Laytkhill- Whitham's model) has borders to certain speeds and density. Then "a phase transition" happens, and this model ceases to work. It is necessary to enter two more models – a free stream and moving traffic jams. There is a question: "What parameters define these phase transitions?" For example, for the concept "aggregate state of substance" defining parameter is temperature. For hydrodynamic transitions – stream speed, etc. For transport streams this question remains open .
Scientists of the National research center of Los Alamos (Los Alamos National Lab. – LANL) allocate the following patterns of a transport stream:
Stage 1. While the road isn't loaded, motorists move at a speed convenient to them, freely passing to the adjacent lanes. Cars at this stage are comparable to a stream of the particles having big freedom in the conveyance.
Stage 2. As soon as the road becomes overfilled, motorists suddenly lose the most part of freedom of conveyance and are compelled to move already as part of a general transport stream, coordinating with it the speed. Thus they any more have no opportunity freely to change a lane. This stage, similar to water flow, is called as a "synchronized" stream.
Stage 3. Movement at very large number of cars in a stream gains faltering character (the so-called stop-and-go mode). The transport stream at this stage can be assimilated to a stream of freezing water, cars become on any period as though "pasted" to one place of the road.
Thus, in the theory of transport streams the last is considered as a liquid or gas stream. Therefore the concept of "phase transition" in a transport stream is entered by analogy to phase transitions in liquids – transformation of steam into water or water into ice.
Semenov V. V. explains: "The explanation of the moment and dynamics of change of a phase in a transport stream, by analogy to that as it occurs in the nature, today while isn't present. Differently, phase transitions are high-quality spasmodic changes in speed and density of transport units in a stream. These changes arise locally and extend along stream as wavy. As a result the stream turns into "jelly". Such condition can keep long enough, hour or two. Such condition arises more often at entries or exits on highways. These phenomena aren't described by any of existing mathematical models but only it is reproduced realistic on imitating models of cellular automatics. Therefore the gear of phase transitions if they exist in reality, and no simply are beautiful classification, still it isn't clear .
Thus, methods of regulation of transport streams are guided by establishment of a certain order within road situations developing on highways for the purpose of improvement of these situations. And this order is based on hydrodynamic model of a transport stream which as it was noted above, isn't adequate for all road situations and, in particular, doesn't work when a transport stream is being compacted. As the result, enduring traffic jams present on highways of cities.
Within the approach offered by us the solution of the problem of traffic jams is considered in another plane – in the preservation plane, more precisely, formation and preservation of the mode of the transport stream corresponding to the stage 1 stated above, or the stage of the free stream. A certain type of regulation of transport streams can create such transport situation at which compacting of a transport stream and formation of traffic jams owing to this compacting doesn't arise. That is a blockage of transition of the stage 1 in the stage 2 and 3 is offered. In other words, it is offered to form and retain a traffic mode on a highway at which motorists move at a speed convenient for transition to the adjacent lanes, or all the time to retain such density of a transport stream at which cars are distributed at movement enough far apart and are provided with space for maneuver.
Certainly, there are also other reasons for formation of traffic jams, for example, accident as a result of which narrowing of highway is formed that also leads to formation of a traffic jam. Nevertheless, and this problem is quite solved within the offered new technique of regulation of transport streams as introduction of a reserve-technical (buffer) lane only for entrance or departure of cars allows to use it and for bypass of places of accidents in many cases because accidents block all lanes of the route enough seldom.
Let's return, however, to offered concrete methods of regulation of transport streams by means of which such transport situation is formed at which compacting of a transport stream and formation of traffic jams owing to this compacting doesn't arise.
It is possible to form and retain a favorable mode of movement on a highway, or the stage of 1 - free stream - at a certain additional work on the basis of already long ago known technique «ramp metering»  according to which at excessive compacting of movement on a separate site of the road restriction of entrance on this site of cars is made by these or those modes.
The version of this technique offered by us is reduced to the following. On all entries on a highway the traffic lights steered by controllers on the program which allows entrance only at an average speed of a transport stream, for example, in the range 60-100 km/h. Data on the speed of a transport stream constantly arrive on the controller, for example, from the radars installed here. The controller gives command on inclusion of signal of traffic light forbidding entrance on a highway at once at an exit of speed of a transport stream out of the bottom limit. The signal of a traffic light is switched on allowing only at set by a transport stream of the speed close to the top limit, for example, of 90 km/h (depending on arrangement of a route and time these intervals can be various, for example, 30 – 70 km/h, 40 – 100 km/h). Thus a transport stream doesn't get to the stages 2 (synchronized stream) and 3 (stop-and-go mode) stated above. As the results emergence of traffic jams depending on compacting of a stream and the corresponding falling of its speed doesn't occur.
The offered approach at the same time allows to reach at the expense of the chosen interval of speeds as it will be shown below, the greatest possible throughput in these conditions on each lane together with opportunity for each car to change lanes that in city conditions is need because of frequent entries on a highway and frequent exits from it.
In addition to it the adjacent to entries or exits of a highway the lane is reserved as buffer: it is used only for entrance and departure of vehicles as well as for bypass of places of accidents or repair. This solution allows to reduce, at least, probability of formation of traffic jams because of accidents to the minimum limit as well as to avoid traffic jams on a highway at places of departure of cars from it as cars before departure from a highway move in advance on this buffer lane and don't create hindrances to other cars on operating lanes.
Let's give excerpt from M.B Afanasyev's article "Transport stream" to show obvious inadequacy of traditional hydrodynamic approach for the condensed movement of transport streams as it was noted by Semenov B.B. .
«Let's note that according to the traditional theory of transport streams focused on hydrodynamic model, a transport stream can be characterized by three critical parameters: intensity N, average speed V and density D. These parameters are connected by the main equation of a transport stream: N = DV.
Graphically this equation represents the main diagram of the transport stream. General view of diagram is shown in drawing below.
It is possible to define characteristics of a transport stream using the equation and the diagram. So, average speed is expressed through a tangent of angle of an inclination of the straight line connecting the beginning of coordinates to a point. Coordinates of this point characterize a certain intensity and density (N/D). Greatest possible under existing conditions intensity of movement as it follows from the chart, is reached at a certain density of a transport stream (point A on the chart) and is called as throughput of lane or road. It is characteristic that at density of a stream, bigger, than in point A intensity of movement decreases. It is explained by that at big traffic density, often there are traffic jams, speed decreases and it leads to reduction of number of the cars passing in unit of time through any section or a site of the road. From the main diagram and the equation of a transport stream follows very important the conclusion for movement regulation: when there is a requirement to pass the greatest possible number of cars on the road, it is necessary to establish by means of signs a certain mode of speed which provides the greatest intensity" .
V. V. Semenov and a number of the experts of the USA stated above showed that the hydrodynamic model is inapplicable for movement of transport streams of high density, therefore, in our opinion, used general concepts, definitions and the equations given above, can't adequately describe and explain all situations in transport streams.
In this regard it was necessary to enter, in our opinion, more adequate model of movement of a transport stream which we will give below.
Let's consider process of formation of transport streams on highways without traffic lights (without adjustable intersections) .
The driver, moving with a certain speed on a lane, complies with a safety distance (lsd). Its extent depends from the speed of movement and is defined from the following ratio:
lsd = τd • v + v²/50,
where τd – delay time, i.e. time of reaction of the driver for change of a surrounding situation; v – car speed.
If the surrounding situation for the driver is stable and doesn't disturb him, then, how shows experiment, τd make about 0.5 sec on the average. This is characteristic at stable movement of cars on the lanes chosen by it considerable time, for example, on long-distance highways with a speed to 100 km/h.
At speed drop out of the limit in 30km/hour, for example, at increase of density of a transport stream, cars approach, there is some kind of narrowness which increases with speed reduction. The road situation is becoming more difficult and time of a delay increases. Experience shows that in this case τd increases to 1 sec.
At high speeds of movement, beginning from 90-100 km/h, tension of the driver also increases as danger increases, and τd again increases to 1 sec.
However time of a delay 0.5 seconds remains at car speeds from 30km/hour to 90-100 km/h only at stable movement of cars, when is absent "mixing" of stream, i.e. without frequent changes by cars of lanes. And this "mixing", as a rule, happens in city conditions in the presence of regularly located frequent entries on a highway and frequent exits from it. Characteristic example of it is "The third transport ring" (TTR) of Moscow. In this case the situation for the driver is difficult and time of a delay makes about 1 second.
Time of reaction of the driver τd, of course, depends on experience and qualification of the driver, but on the average it is such.
The indicator v²/50 takes into consideration dispersion of braking systems of cars.
The braking distance of the car is determined by formula: sb = v²/2a, where a – negative speedup in m/s². On technical requirements for modern vehicles a have to be not less than 5 m/s². The admissible dispersion has an order about 10%. Let's take as an example the worst option – the car in front is adjusted when braking on a = 5.5 m/s², and the car following it is adjusted on a = 4.5 m/s². Then, if one car going with the speed 25 m/s, passes when braking v²/2a = 625/9, another car will pass way v²/2a = 625/11. The difference of these two segments will be as follows:
Δs = v²/9 - v²/11= (11v² - 9 v²)/99 = 2v²/99 ~ v²/50 (m).
Or Δs = v²/2a1 - v²/2a2 = v² (à2 - à1) / 2à1∙à2.
At à1 = 4.5m/sec² and à2 = 5.5m/sec²
Δs = v² (5.5 – 4.5)/2 • 24.75 = v²/49.5 ≈ v²/50 (m).
For example, at v = 25m/sec (90km/hour) and τd = 0.5 sec the safety distance lsd = 0.5•25 + 25²/50 = 12.5 + 12.5 = 25m, and at τd = 1 sec lsd = 37.5m.
Let's enter concept of dynamic length of vehicle lä. Dynamic length is the sum of average physical length of the car ls and a safety distance lsd:
ldl = ls + lsd
On the average the physical length of the car ls makes 5 meters. Thus, the dynamic length ldl is a site of a road cloth which occupies the car taking into account a safety distance lsd.
The relation of speed of movement of the car to the dynamic length (v/ldl) is the maximum throughput N of a lane.
For example, five cars move one after another at the speed 90km/hour (25m/sec), delay time τd makes 1 sec. They occupy 212.5 meters of a lane (5cars õ 42.5 m). At specified speed the distance in 212.5 meters will be passed in 8.5 seconds, i.e. in 8.5 seconds will pass all five cars.
Thus, each car passes ldl (42.5m) for 1.82 sec. In one second the car will pass 23.3 meters, or about 5/9 ldl.
In one hour the throughput N of a lane at this speed and delay time for the driver τd = 1 sec will make: 5/9 x 3600sec = 2000 cars per hour.
At drop of speed the dynamic length and throughput of lane will change. For example, if cars move with the speed 7.2 km/h (2 m/s) a safety distance lsd makes about 2.1 meters, i.e. at delay time τd = 1 sec the distance between cars makes slightly more than 2 meters, the dynamic length ldl – about 7 meters, and throughput N = 2/7 ~ 0.3 cars/sec, or it was being reduced approximately twice – with 5/9 cars/sec up to 3/10 cars/sec.
The calculation of throughput stated above at the speed 90 km/h is given for traffic conditions on city highways where exits of cars with highways or entries on it from numerous city streets are made almost continuously that assumes almost continuous maneuvering of cars for change of lanes by preparation for departure from a highway or after entrance on it and the corresponding tension of the driver. The same is characteristic for city highway-platforms with their frequent entries, exits and crossings between storeys.
As a result, in these cases and in the range of speeds from 30 km/h to 100km/hour time of reaction of the driver for situation change, or time of a delay makes as well as out of this interval, about 1 second, or time of a delay is raised.
Let's enter also concept of density of a transport stream d which is equal to the relation of physical length of the car to the dynamic length of the car: d = ls/ldl. This expression reflects extent of filling with lane by cars (as a percentage) taking into account as average physical length of cars, so safety distances between them defined by the speed of movement of the cars substantially that, in our opinion, is more exact than expression of density of a transport stream through number of cars on unit (kilometer) of length accepted in the theory of transport streams which explicitly doesn't consider dependence of the distance between cars from the speed of their movement. From expression d = ls/ldl (see the tab. below) comes to light at once degree of a sparseness of an automobile stream at various speeds of movement at fixed time of a delay for the driver. The ratio of the lane occupied physically with cars and intervals between cars is visible also. For example, at a slow movement in the case congestion car casings borrow up to two thirds of each lane (the road is clogged by cars), and at speeds of cars higher than 100 km/h car casings borrow less the tenth part of a road lane.
For an illustration we will provide the table. The table is shown dependence of dynamic length ldl, throughput N of a lane and density of transport stream d from speed of movement the cars V in the range of speeds from 2 m/s (7.2km/hour) to 45 m/s (162km/hour) for city conditions (at τd = 1 sec on highways).
It is visible from this table that at speeds of movement of cars in the range from 10 m/s (36km/hour) to 27 m/s (97km/hour) throughput N has the greatest value in comparison with remained high-speed modes.
It is visible also from this table that throughput N changes slightly in the specified range – about 5%.
Graphically dependence of throughput N from the speed of movement of a transport stream is shown below. From the schedule it is visible that the throughput increases approximately twice - from one thousand cars per hour on one lane and approximately to two thousand cars per hour at increase in speed from 7 km/h to 30 km/h, - and then the throughput grows slowly up to 2200 thousand cars per hour right up to 45 km/h, this size of throughput remains up to the speed 72 km/h, and then there is a slow throughput reduction up to 1800 cars per hour at a speed 162 km/h. Thus, the most favorable mode of movement, from the point of view of use of throughput of lanes, begins with 30 km/h. However if at the speed 30 km/h 2000 cars per hour pass on lane only 30 km, the same 2000 cars at the speed 90 km/h pass already three times bigger distance. Therefore, from the point of view of profitability and speed of conveyance it is most favorable to choose more a high-speed mode, but thus, without leaving out of the limit in 100 km/h from the point of view of traffic safety.
This table and the schedule, in our opinion, reflect more adequately dynamics of traffic on its critical parameters, than, for example, the main diagram of a transport stream (it is shown above), used in the theory of a transport stream based on hydrodynamic model .
The approach stated above on creation and maintenance of unceasing movement can be applied both to multilevel highway-platforms, and to the ground highways which don't have intersections (without traffic lights), like "The third transport ring" (TTR) in Moscow.
At certain changes the same approach can be applied and to highways with intersections, or with traffic lights .
The essence of these changes consists that unceasing movement is established in the form of a stream of cars with gaps. In other words, when separate columns (pools) of cars are formed, then gaps, or intervals between columns find oneself at movement of columns on forbidding (red) signal of a traffic light, and columns – on allowing (green) signal of a traffic light. That is at traffic lights working in antiphase at the neighboring intersections through each intersection during action of an allowing signal there passes a column of cars, and after change of a signal on opposite in the formed gap of columns pass cars of the cross directions. Such approach allows to be led in the same way columns of cars of an opposite direction on highways with two-way traffic. And feature of this approach is that at the fixed interval of action of a signal of all traffic lights, for example, 40 seconds, traffic control transfers as though from a traffic light to drivers of the front part of each automobile column who brake if see that the column goes too quickly and it can appear at the intersection before change of red signal on green or, on the contrary, drivers add to gas if the speed of a column is insufficient to use all the time of work of allowing signal. As for refill of the columns decreasing by number of cars in process of their departure on lateral streets, the admission from the cross directions on a highway of cars is carried out on a signal recalculating cars in a column of detectors which are transferred by the controller to an entrance traffic light if the decrease of cars makes, for example, 20% from the number of cars which was available originally of cars in a column. And the admission of cars on a highway is stopped as soon as the former number of cars in a column will be restored.
Estimate of risks of the project.
Let's consider possible objections on working capacity and efficiency of the offered technique of regulation of transport streams from the point of view of an estimate of risks of the project.
1) Introduction of unceasing movement on highways without traffic lights (traffic jams and congestion don't arise) TTR and MRH type in Moscow worsens conditions of journey on an adjacent street road network, including, breaks of work of public passenger transport.
At first on a concrete example of such highway without traffic lights as "The third transport ring" (TTR) we will show possible results of use of a technique of regulation of transport streams offered by us on the basis of "ramp metering" concerning throughput and concerning the organization of unceasing movement (without emergence of traffic jams and congestion).
Usually at the complicated movement on TTR, for example, in rush hours, on it the cars driving on TTR approximately from 30 entrances on one party of TTR start accumulating. Density of transport streams start to grow, the speed of movement falls. In particular, when falling speed to 7 km/h with emergence between cars of distance in 2 meters and with average length of the car 5 meters on three lanes of one party of TTR at its extent - 36 km - are accumulated (36000m x 3lanes): (5+2) m = 15400 cars. If to take a case that each car before departure from TTR has to pass on it a half (18 km) at speed 7 km/h then for car journey in these conditions is spent: 18km: 7km/hour ≈ 2.6 hours. Thus, during 2.6 hours on 1/2 TTR will be able to move 15400cars x 1/2 ≈ 7700 cars, i.t. for one hour on one lane will be able to pass (7700cars : 3lanes): 2.6hour ≈ 1000 cars.
At regulation of movement on the offered technique on three through lanes of TTR (extent of TTR makes 36 km) with the same average length of the car (5m) and distance between cars 30 - 40 meters (speed of movement 60 – 90 km/h) on the average are approximately (36000m x 3): 35m ≈ 3000 cars, or it are less, than in already considered case, by 5 times: 15400cars : 3000cars ≈ 5 (number of cars under existing conditions – admittance of cars into TTR from all entrances by portions - fluctuates approximately from 3300 to 2400). It is spent for the pass of a half of TTR (18 km) at an average speed 75 km/h: 18km : 75km/hour ≈ 0.24 hours, or about 14 minutes. Thus, during 0.24 hours on 1/2 TTR will be able to move 3000cars x 1/2 ≈ 1500 cars, i.e. for one hour on one lane will be able to pass ((1500cars : 3lanes) : 0.24) ≈ 2025 cars.
These data indicate the major for introduction of the offered technique the fact: time demanded on journey of identical distance at established free movement on a highway without traffic lights, for example, at the expense of restriction of entrance at withdrawal out of limits of the established speed interval, is 11 times less time spent for journey of the same way at uncontrollable entrance of cars in rush hours on the highway. Therefore it will be possible even in rush hours on highways with unceasing mode of high-speed movement significantly to reduce time in a way.
As for highway throughput, the provided data show obvious dependence of throughput from the speed of movement of a transport stream: throughput increases with speed growth in this case more than twice.
Let's look as far as these skilled data coincide with the calculated indicators received for similar cases from ratios entered by us.
According to the offered approach to an estimate of formation of transport streams throughput N of one lane is calculated on formula:
N = v/ldl,
where ldl is the dynamic length of the car.
It is determined by formula:
ldl = ls + lsd,
where ls is the physical length of the car and it on the average makes 5 meters, and lsd is a safety distance from a front bumper up to a rear bumper of the adjacent cars in a stream.
It is determined by formula: lsd = τd • v + v ²/50,
where τd – delay time, i.e. time of reaction of the driver for change of a surrounding situation; v – car speed.
Let's review the first example: at uncontrollable entrance of cars on TTR occurs gradual highway saturation by cars and the speed of a stream of cars falls to 7 km/h (congestion), or 2 m/s, and delay time for drivers makes in the conditions of the complicated movement about 1 sec. In this case throughput can be calculated as follows:
N = v/(ls + lsd) = v/(ls + τd • v + v²/50) = 2/(5 + 1 • 2 + 4/50) = 2/(7 + 0.08) = 0.29 (cars/sec) ≈ 1164 (cars per hour).
In this example with use of the offered technique the average speed of cars on TTR makes 75 km/h, or 21 m/s, and delay time for drivers in the conditions of frequent maneuvering, as cars almost constantly drive on the highway and move down from it, makes as well as in the first example, about 1 sec, throughput is calculated as follows:
N = v/(ls + lsd) = v/(ls + τd • v + v²/50) = 21/(5 + 1.0 • 21 + 441/50) = 21/34.8 ≈ 0.6 (cars/sec) = 2160 (cars in hour).
It as a whole coincides with skilled data according to which lane throughput increases approximately twice – from 1000 cars per hour to 2000 cars per hour.
The given example shows that the average daily throughput of each operating lane on condition of preservation for cars of space for maneuvering remains near value 2000 cars per hour, and time of pass of half of TTR (18 km) also makes at any time of day about 14 minutes. That is, if within a day on TTR average speed makes 75 km/h (rather rarefied movement), congestion and traffic jams, which reason is falling of speed of a transport stream, won't arise.
However traffic jams may be the result of accident on the route. Therefore we offer for a bypass or streamlining of places of accidents to enter and use reserve-technical, or buffer (far on the right in the direction of travel) lanes as well as lanes being remained free during accident or repair. It allows at preservation of mode "ramp metering" (a regular suspension of entrance of cars on the highway, or controlled entrance on a highway) to retain movement by the unceasing.
The reserve-technical lane, on which the through passage is forbidden, is used also as the buffer at entrance and departure of cars, or only for smooth moving on far lane from a place of entrance or to drive up to a departure place from a highway. It allows not to be accumulated to cars on lanes at exits and, thereby, not to block lanes of high-speed movement.
Besides buffer lanes can be used to drive up to specialized transport to places of accidents or repair as well as in case of need as lanes for rather rare movement of public transport.
Multiple cutting-down of time of journey of cars on a highway without traffic lights - the TTR type - promotes unloading of an adjacent street road network from cars thanks to their accelerated transfer to destinations through this highway with non-stop traffic and high throughput and, thus, doesn't worsen, and improves journey conditions on this network, and at the expense of the offered organization of movement the part of lanes of a highway can be used both for its needs, and for rather seldom passing public transport.
For a multilevel highway-platform as well as for any ground highway, in the period of a choice of a place of its installation (construction) and preparation of project documentation the necessary stage is coordination of inflow of cars from lateral entrances, including prospects of this inflow and a projected throughput of a highway- platform and outflow of cars with throughput of routes departing from a highway- platform. And, if the error by calculation of inflow can be corrected, having built on a platform or having cut off excess storeys, the mistake by calculation of outflow can be fraught with complications, up to a blockage of too rare places of departure and search by cars of empty exits. Therefore, for example, in case of approximately equal inflow and outflow of cars the number of entries on a highway- platform and number of exits from a highway- platform has to be identical, and throughput of a highway- platform has to be slightly higher than the greatest possible inflow of cars. That is it is necessary to provide necessary increase number of exits on a site and if it isn't enough of them, then to design the corresponding offtakes from a highway- platform on adjacent streets. However and thus, in general, equilibrium situation there can be considerable deviations from average values of inflow, accumulation of cars on storeys of a highway- platform and outflow of cars, for example, on entries in the morning peak. It is necessary for this purpose at design on the corresponding sites to provide additional entries on a highway-platform directly on its top storeys with leading to them of the corresponding offtakes from adjacent streets and roads. As for possible overflow of a highway- platform by cars above the set limit, for its prevention as preservation of high-speed unceasing movement depends from it, it is necessary on each entry on a highway- platform to install automatic system which, for example, by means of a radar, that is on speed or by means of recalculating sensors, i.e. by number of passable cars, made registration of parameters of a transport stream and at their deviation out of the bottom limit short-term stopped the entrance of cars on a highway- platform, transmitting through the controller command for inclusion of a forbidding signal of the entrance traffic light operating up to restoration of average values of parameters of a transport stream.
Similar actions have to be made in order to avoid congestion and traffic jams and for preservation of high-speed unceasing movement on ground highways without traffic lights. Let's show on the example of TTR what it has characteristics on entrance on it of cars, its throughput at preservation of a high-speed mode of movement and on outflow of cars from it. .On TTR along each through lane, and them there three on both parties (on separate sites of TTR the number of lanes reaches five), can pass per hour as we showed above, about 2000 cars in the range of the speeds of 60-90 km/h, i.e. 6000 cars per hour on three lanes of through movement. In the presence of about 30 entrances on TTR from one its party and 30 exits from it during one hour on this party can on the average drive in 6000: 30 = 200 cars and to move down 200 cars, or about 3 cars per minute. Therefore the simplest way of preservation of this favorable high-speed mode is a continuous recalculation of cars on entries with an admission to TTR no more than three cars per minute. If the number of coming cars increases, entrance is limited at once and cars are stopped, for example, on specially prepared platforms – ground platforms if there is a place for them, or elevated (underground), in the absence of that.
Another technique of entrance on TTR for preservation of a high-speed mode is based on use of radars, That is when falling average speed of a transport stream up to the set limit in 60 km/h the controller gives command on inclusion of a forbidding signal to entrance traffic light up to restoration of average speed of a stream, for example, up to value 80 km/h, and only after that entrance again resolves. As for departure with TTR then everything is simpler as from a reserve-technical (buffer) lane on exit on the average there are per minute only 3 cars therefore any hindrances for departure for them as well as for movement of the main transport stream it does not create even in case of sudden desire, for example, drivers at once 10 cars to move down through the same exit at the same time. In this case cars, having built one by one on a reserve-technical (buffer) lane, will consistently leave TTR, without obstructing traffic of the main transport stream. In the same case, if the exit is blocked - for example, the adjacent street will be in a traffic jam – on a reserve-technical (buffer) lane at this exit the car turn will be built until places on this lane will be enough, and then other cars should pass simply further – up to the subsequent exits.
So the current situation with congestion and traffic jams, for example in Moscow, on highways without intersections is quite solved as it is described above.
It should be noted also that existence free from movement of a reserve-technical (buffer) lane on edges of a highway is especially important in the case deficiencies of exits from a highway, as, for example, on MRH of Moscow. So far as preservation of a high-speed mode is the most important for normal functioning of highways in so far as cars leaving from a stream shouldn't detain him and have to take place for leaving at any time from a stream. This place is the reserve-technical (buffer) lane, capable to contain sufficient number of cars if throughput of exits, for example, in rush hours doesn't suffice. And it is technically simple to expand in addition buffer lane for the bigger capacity of cars settled on it until departure, at least, to that time while additional exits won't be constructed.
As for transport streams on highways with traffic lights (with adjustable intersections) like radial highways in Moscow, then on them it is necessary to use the improved by us technique "ramp metering" , described in brief above by means of which unceasing movement could be established enough simple on highways (without emergence of congestion and traffic jams) even in the presence on them traffic lights. And, for example, if in places of traverses of highways by other streets arise insuperable difficulties at movement in the cross direction, the problem can be solved, for example, having thrown through a highway of lightweight overpasses for a cross traffic.
Thus it is possible to solve a problem of connectedness of a street road network and cars of one district of the city aren't cut from another district by a highway with unceasing movement that is in detail described below as well as in source .
Besides, the problem of connectedness is solved also by another option of a technique of the organization of unceasing movement, namely: movement of cars on a highway with adjustable intersections without stopping by columns with gaps between them, in details described in source .
2) Possibility of unacceptably big waiting time of allowing signal of traffic light at entrance on a highway.
As by us already it was stated above, it is much more important to establish on all highways the high-speed non-stop traffic allowing for 10-20 minutes to cross considerable part of the city, than all the rest as highways are the main transport arteries of the city. This most practically solves a problem of becoming ripe transport collapse, i.e. tens and even hundreds thousands cars on highways can move freely around the city without congestion and traffic jams on them, unlike how it is now.
As for "a possible unacceptable big waiting time of allowing signal of traffic light", how already it was shown above, short-term expectation (some minutes before entrance on a highway for each car), practically only in rush hours on specially allocated platforms are more favorable immeasurably than idle time of cars within 2-3 hours in traffic jams on a highway as it occurs every day on MRH, TTR and other city highways of Moscow and on similar highways of other cities.
Let's note a departure problem from a highway which is important from the point of view of preservation on highways of unceasing high-speed movement. For example, on TTR in rush hours traffic jams at a number of exits are formed because exits are on joints of TTR and radial highways which are clogged into rush hours by cars. Certainly, introduction of a reserve-technical (buffer) lane on which, without disturbing the main movement, moving-down cars can be built in turn waiting for departure on a radial highway and not partition off through lanes, in a certain measure solves a problem. However more constructive is establishment of unceasing movement on all highways – and ring and radial – with traffic lights and without traffic lights. In this case in the presence of coordination of transport streams and application of modern junctions on their joints as well as reserve-technical lanes for entrance and departure problems with moving from one highway on another can't arise.
3) Difficulty of the evolutions necessary for following on a route, because of the created dense transport streams.
The present technique just allows avoiding formation of dense transport streams. With its help on highways the rarefied transport streams of high-speed, unceasing movement are automatically formed. Therefore cars can freely maneuver in these conditions. It is necessary because in city conditions in the presence of frequent entries on a highway and exits from them cars for entrances or departures should move from one lane to another. For providing it, the distance between cars has to be more, than at movement without maneuvers as it, for example, occurs on long-distance highways where exits are rare. In other words, maneuvering on lanes distracts the driver, on the average increasing time on adoption of these or those decisions by it (delay time). Therefore theoretically greatest possible throughput of city highways making about 3000 cars per hour for one lane at speeds from 30 to 100 km/h, decreases approximately to 2000 cars per hour for one lane (see calculations above). Nevertheless, this size of throughput is higher than present average throughput on ñity highways without use of traffic lights approximately twice and above present average capacity on highways with use of traffic lights approximately four times, but the main thing not it, but that in lack of congestion and traffic jams high speed on highways allows cars to cross all city within minutes 10-20. For establishment and preservation of the mode of high-speed unceasing movement the number of cars on highways is automatically regulated by the technique described above. As a result the average speed of a transport stream at the specified fluctuations, for example, from 60 km/h to 90 km/h doesn't fall to low values and averages about 75 km/h. And at emergency accidents or repair for bypass is used the buffer lane advance allocated on each edge of a highway.
4) Low efficiency of restriction of access on a highway from the point of view of redistribution of transport streams because of low connectivity of the local street road network and impossibility of a choice of an alternative route.
We already mentioned a popular confusing on noticeable influence of some (generally the extremely insignificant on time and being used, as a rule, in rush hours) restrictions of entrance on highways of cars on efficiency of traffic above.
In city conditions everything occurs just the opposite: if it is possible on highways without congestion and traffic jams (exactly for this purpose highways and are intended) quickly (in 10-20 minutes) to reach to the destination, the driver, as a rule, won't look for alternative routes, and he will prefer to go on a highway even in case for entrance on it is necessary to wait some minutes. Thus, time for it will increase in a way for some minutes for example from 15 minutes to 20 minutes while the driver must get to the same place by other routes in congestion and traffic jams for hours
In other words, if to create movement without traffic jams at least on highways, throughput of a city network will increase at once.
But it is possible completely to solve a problem of traffic jams on city streets only by means of a network of multilevel highway-platforms for pass of cars as well as road trains or electric trains for the passengers, wishing to move around the city without cars (inexpensive analog of the subway, but over the earth), described above, as the network of highway- platforms as though soaks up in itself cars, exempting sectoral streets from excess transport for free journey. Besides, highway- platforms provide free entrance into the city and departure from it for any number of vehicles. It isn't necessary to spend the enormous sums for a housebreaking and construction of additional roads in the city at installation of highway- platforms over operating highways and/or rail tracks, and almost unlimited throughput of a city network of highways will be provided.
5) The high cost of the implementation demanding essential investments into transport infrastructure.
It is known that within more than 10 years of fight against traffic jams in Moscow hundreds billions dollars are without results spent, and these useless expenditures are supposed to be carried out and further.
Introduction of the technique of regulation of transport streams "ramp metering"  improved by us on highways with traffic lights  and without traffic lights  in comparison with construction or expansion of roads is cheap: for regulation of process of entrance of cars on a highway are required traffic lights, radars or detectors, boards, controllers. This equipment isn't expensive. Besides, on many entries on a highway traffic lights and the other equipment already is available and it should be retargeted only. As for installation of multilevel highway-platforms over ground highways, the kilometer of a two-level highway with eight operating lanes and parking third level costs $7-8 million, instead of one hundred millions dollars spent by the city budget, in this case Moscow, on one kilometer of city ground highways.
Only one introduction of the technique of regulation of transport streams "ramp metering" improved by us on highways with traffic lights and without them, increases throughput of present highways approximately in one and a half time that only on this indicator is equivalent to the corresponding increase in a network of transport highways, and these are hundreds billions dollars. It is possible to add to it reduction of losses of time in a way, the fuel which is in vain spending in traffic jams, reduction of exhaust gas arriving in air, etc.
Lightweight overpasses on a steel framework with one-way traffic for crossing of highways without traffic lights. Economic estimate.
If to mean transformation available in the cities the most part of highways with intersections in a highway without them, i.e. without use of traffic lights – transformation in a highway with non-stop traffic - it is necessary to install elevated or underground overpasses for vehicles crossing a highway without having forgotten and about pedestrians.
We offered option of elevated lightweight overpasses out of a steelwork of the simplest design as crossings with one-way traffic through a highway from lateral streets.
Over a highway the lightweight overpass on a steel framework is thrown. The overpass has one buffer lane, two lanes in one-way and entry from a highway. Cars and pedestrian can cross a highway through it. This option allows to be excluded the left turning movement from a highway not to slow down movement. At the following intersection or crossing the overpass is installed for the moving organization over a highway in the opposite direction. And so on. Thereby, the construction becomes simpler, low-cost. The construction allows to be established on a highway unceasing movement and, at the same time, practically doesn't break cross transit of cars and pedestrians. Depending on an estimated difference of loading of the overpass by cars from a highway and from the street brought to it the number of lanes has to correspond to it. That is one or two lanes can be brought to overpass from the lateral street or the highway (see drawings below).
Costs of installation of lightweight metal overpass of one-way traffic on the basis of a steel framework make about $600 thousand at its extent in 250 meters. It has weight on metal 257 tons, and on a road coating (from rather thin layer of steel-fiber-concrete) – 362 tons.
It is expedient to cover overpass from above, at least, with nonflammable plastic, having provided big safety of lanes. It is rather easy to avoid of emergence of icicles and other dangers from snow on a roof, using the following. It is known that at corners of the slopes equal or big 60°, snow on a roof at all doesn't remain, that is the coefficient, depending on inclination angle of a slope, is equal 0. At 45° this coefficient is equal 0.5. Thus, it is possible to deduce the acceptable height of a roof, inclination angle of slopes, a material and system of fastenings for a roof on condition of the size of loading known from tables on 1ì² roof in order to not to clean at all snow from overpass roof (see, e.g., site ostroykevse.ru ›Snow loading). If for one reason or another falling even the small mass of snow from a roof of a overpass is inadmissible, as we know, it is possible to mount into slopes of a roof the cramps holding snow and ice , turning them eventually into safe mass (see, e.g., site ard-center.ru› home/publ/TS2011/nomer1_2/pub21/).
Let's give a short economic estimate of overpass of one-way traffic on the basis of steel framework and steel spans with a road coating from steel-fiber-concrete (2 lanes and one buffer lane).
Spans of overpass over the highway with unceasing movement and length 250 m in the form of steel sheet-plates 6 õ 3 õ 0.01 meters are being laid down on steel beams – longitudinal and cross bearing parts, height on cross section 200mm, width – 100mm which are fixed on vertical metal supports–columns from 2 to 4 meters of height, diameter - 30 cm, wall thickness - 20 mm. Columns are arranged at distance 50 meters from each other longitudinal and 10 meters cross. About 2 meters of each column are part of the base.
The area of spans of overpass makes 2500 m², number of steel sheet-plates – 139. As on overpass, except passenger cars, pass buses and heavy-load vehicles so far as strengthening of steel plates is necessary. For this purpose the longitudinal and cross crossbars having different rigidness are welded on the bottom surface of flat steel plate. So the ortotropic plate is formed. Price of the ortotropic plate is slightly higher than a price of a flat steel sheet of rolled metal.
The mass of spans of overpass by length 250m and width 10 meters at thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.01 m and density of steel 7.8 T/m³ makes: 250m x 10m x 0.01m x 7.8T/m³ = 195 tons. The area makes 2500 m².
The mass of entry by extent 100m from ground level to overpass (width - 4 meters, thickness of steel sheet-plates 0.1 m, density of steel 7.8 T/m³) makes: 100m x 4m x 0.01m x 7.8T/m³ = 31.2ò. The area of entry spans makes 400 m².
The total area of spans of overpass and entry makes 2900 m².
Diameter of vertical supports makes 300mm, wall thickness - 20mm, cross section – 17600mm². Number of vertical columns under overpass – 8, height of each of four columns makes 4 meters, and height of each of other four columns – 2 meters. Two columns hold entry to overpass, height of one column is 4 meter, height another - 2 meters. About two meters of each column are part of the base. Total extent of columns – 50 meters, weight – 6.86 tons.
Extent of beams - longitudinal bearing parts of spans - makes four rows and in each row 5 fifty-meter longitudinal bearing parts – 1000m, 4 cross ten-meter bearing parts beams have total length 40 m, the total length of beams – 1040m. It is known that 44.7 m of beam of the specified size weigh one ton, hence it follows that the mass of all beams of overpass makes 22 tons. The entry is supported by two cross beams on 4 meters and two longitudinal rows of beams by length 200 meters, the general extent of beams of entry - 208 meters. Total extent of all beams of overpass and entry – 1248 meters, their weight makes 28 tons.
The total mass of steel blocks and overpass elements taking into account bearing parts and entry makes about 260ò. At the price of one ton of rolled metal in the form of the specified steelwork about $1000 the cost of steel blocks and elements of overpass makes $260 thousand.
The mass of blocks, loading 8 support-columns of the overpass without entry, is equal 217ò.
Spans of the overpass become covered, at least, by five-centimetric layer of road coating – steel-fiber-concrete. The area of spans of the overpass makes 2500 m².
The volume of steel-fiber-concrete coating of spans of the overpass makes 125m³, weight – 312.5 tons. The area of spans of entry makes 400 m². The volume of steel-fiber-concrete coating of spans of entry – 20m³, weight – 50 tons. The total cost of steel-fiber-concrete coating of spans of the overpass and entry (the cubic meter price of steel-fiber-concrete - $300) makes $43.5 thousand.
Taking into account weight of steel-fiber-concrete the mass of the overpass will make 620 tons and the total cost - $300 thousand, and the mass of load on vertical supports will make 530ò.
The covering of open steel surfaces about 2900 m² by anticorrosive structure with average cost about $10 on square meter can be estimated at the sum $29 thousand. And waterproofer installation on the same area with the same cost can be estimated at the sum $29 thousand.
From above the opened spans are covered with a plastic roof from the nonflammable material. Area of roof makes 3000 m². Its cost at the average price of plastic $10 for 1m² makes $30 thousand.
10 bases (1 õ 1 õ 2) meters for support-columns will demand 20 m³ concrete. It is worth $6 thousand.
The cost of the specified designs and materials will make in the sum $395 thousand.
Other items of expenditure on installation of a highway-platform include delivery of ready blocks; assembly; rent of cranes and other gears, equipment; carrying out preliminary geodetic and other auxiliary works, installation on overpass by the necessary equipment.
It is known that the price of delivery of cubic meter of concrete on distance of 51-55 km by motor transportation makes $33. Thus, delivery of 145m³ concrete from plant to a place of installation of overpass will cost $4.8 thousand. At the price of delivery of ton by motor transport on distance about 650 km - $50 delivery about 260 tons of metal designs costs about $13 thousand. In the sum delivery of designs and materials will cost $18 thousand.
Assembly of 1 km of a highway-platform together with entries, exits, crossings can be carried out in the presence of the necessary equipment and gears in one-two months by 10 experts at payment $50 thousand to them.
Rent of gears, including the crane and other equipment for one-two months will manage in the sum about $50 thousand.
The cost of other auxiliary works it is possible to estimate about $50 thousand.
As a result, costs of installation of overpass will make $565 thousand.
Thus, the cost of square meter of spans of overpass (2900m²) will make about $195.
The mass of overpass having two lanes and one buffer lane on the basis of rolled metal makes 530 tons. This weight is loading 8 steel supports-columns with diameter 30cm, cross section 17600mm² everyone. Thus 5300000 newton put pressure upon the total area of columns of cross section 140000 mm², or one square millimeter is exposed to pressure 38n/mm². The design has approximately 16-fold safety margin at limit of durability of steel 600n/mm². Up to 20 trucks on the average on 10 tons everyone can be at the same time in movement at both lanes of overpass of the specified construction. If to consider their total mass which will make 200 tons, the construction with additional loading in the form of trucks and lump near 730ò, being exposed to the greatest possible loading, maintains the safety margin close to 11.
It should be noted, it is possible significantly (to 60%) to reduce the mass of a highway-platform and its prime cost at the expense of an exception of a steel-fiber-concrete road coating, without contradicting available standards and norms, having replaced it with new composite coatings from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic or glass-fiber reinforced plastic.
Additional explanations on organization of unceasing movement on city highways.
First of all, the issue of selection of a trial site without crossings (without adjustable intersections) in 10-20 km has to be resolved.
The trial site can be used for initial testing manually details of a technique of establishment of unceasing movement on highways without intersections, i.e. manual switching of traffic lights on forbidding signal or a police baton is used at the indication of a radar on car stream speed drop to 60 (40 or 50) km/h, as well as manual switching of traffic lights on allowing signal or respectively a police baton uses at the indication of a radar of the given upper bound of a flow rate 100 (80 or 90) km/h on highway entrances. Establishment of an automatic mode of controlled entrance of cars throughout a site is made after this testing, and then transfer of this mode to all similar highways is made.
If highways without intersections are absent in the city, it is necessary to consider option of installation of elevated overpasses or to consider option of the organization of unceasing movement on highways with intersections by automobile columns with the corresponding gaps between columns (see previous chapter).
Let's give more specifically algorithm for regulation of entrance of cars to the highway without intersections.
On entrances it is necessary to put traffic cops with batons or manual switching of a signal of the traffic light as well as radars for carrying out periodic restriction of entrance of cars to the highway.
Restriction of entrance is not made (the highway is not overloaded, the stream is far from synchronized, i.e. cars have opportunity freely to change a lane) at the free movement, for example, in the range 50-90 km/h. Average speed of a transport stream is measured by radars or other available ways.
If the transport stream is condensed in rush hours or at accidents and as a result, its average speed falls, for example, to 50 km/h the entrance of cars to the highway on the corresponding sites is forbidden to increase in average speed of a transport stream, for example, up to 90 km/h.
Entrance of cars to this site of the highway is allowed when registration of an average flow rate 90 km/h up to decrease in an average flow rate to 50 km/h and so on.
This algorithm is used, generally in rush hours and at accidents, i.e. at the beginning of an overload of the route. Unceasing movement of a stream of cars on the highway does not interrupt as a result of use of this algorithm.
Thus all lanes, except extreme on the right in the direction of car movement are used on the highway for high-speed, free, unceasing movement.
As a result, speed throughout the highway all the time is retained in limits 50-90 km/hour by means of the specified mode of controlled entrance and unceasing movement in a mode of the free stream remains.
At accidents on the highway speed remains in the same limits at the expense of additional increase of time of restriction of entrance of cars to the highway until increase in a flow rate up to the maximum value, and the detour of the place of accident (repair) is carried out along the free lanes and buffer (far on the right) lanes at places of accidents.
1. The traffic police and department on a traffic control have to coordinate the actions on prevention of a through passage of cars on buffer lanes, for example, by means of an express marking, use of video cameras, etc.
2. The number of entries to the highway has to correspond to number of exits from the highway for coordination of inflow of cars to the highway and their outflow from it. If the number of exits is not enough or in rush hours near exits the transport stream starts being condensed quickly, it is necessary to increase respectively number of exits or to change the traffic organization on streets adjacent to the highway by the technique similar offered.
3. Entrance of cars to the highway as well as departure from it, is made only through a buffer lane on a piece 50-200 meters and cars before exit site from the highway move in advance to this buffer lane not to create hindrances to other cars on operating lanes. Thus, the buffer lane on the most part of the extent is free for a detour of places of accident or repair by cars.
4. Exit is made only to the right side in the direction of travel through a buffer lane not to break a mode of the free stream (not to retard it) on the highway. The left-hand turn from the highway is forbidden.
5. Enter of cars to the highway is made only on allowing signal of the entrance traffic light working in an automatic mode through the controller, programmed on change of a signal allowing entrance on forbidding only when giving from a radar of a signal of falling of average speed of a transport stream, for example, to 50 km/h. The signal of the traffic light is switched on allowing signal only at a set by a transport stream of the speed close to an upper bound of speed, for example, 90 km/h (depending on a situation these intervals can be various, for example, 30 – 70 km/h, 60 – 100 km/h, but not less than 30 km/h). Thereby, transition of a transport stream in a stage of a synchronized stream (at which cars cannot maneuver without stream braking) is not allowed and emergence of jams is excluded.
Signposts about restriction of the bottom level of speed, for example, to 50 km/h have to be installed on the highway. Thus, this mode excludes possibility of transition of the free transport stream to synchronized stream which deprives cars of possibility of maneuver (moving from one lane on another).
6. It is necessary to provide the corresponding expansion of entrance sites to the highway for a case of a possible congestion of cars at entrances at a forbidding signal of the traffic light, for example, in rush hours. As for exit, at an extreme situation, for example, in rush hours, cars are being built one by one on a buffer lane before exit site and to move down sequentially from the highway, without obstructing traffic of the main transport stream. In that case, if the cars would have nowhere to go – the adjacent street will be in a stopper – along a buffer lane at this exit the car turn will be built until places on this lane will be enough, and then other cars should pass further – up to the following exits. Anyway, multiple reduction of time of journey of cars on the highway without traffic lights (without intersections) promotes unloading of an adjacent street road network from cars thanks to their accelerated transfer to destinations through this highway with unceasing movement and a high throughput rate and improves conditions of journey on all of a city road network.
7. It is necessary for highway transformation with intersections to the unceasing highway, except stripping of the central traffic lights and installation of traffic lights on entrances, to build underground and elevated transitions for pedestrians, and the cars crossing this highway to pass metal platforms. As a result, interfacing districts of the city are not dissected by the highway with an exception of possibility of direct transit.
8. Except the specified purposes, buffer lanes can be used as driveway for specialized transport to places of accidents or repair as well as, if necessary, and as lanes for public transport in particular time of day.
9. It should be noted also that presence of the free from movement of a reserve and technical (buffer) lane on the edge of the highway is especially important at a lack of exits from the highway. As preservation of an unceasing high-speed mode is the most important for normal functioning of highways so far as cars leaving a transport stream should not detain him and must be able for leaving at any time from a stream. Such opportunity is given by the buffer lane, capable to contain sufficient number of cars if throughput of exits, for example, in rush hours does not suffice. And technically simply to expand additionally buffer lanes - in the limiting option - for larger occupancy stopping cars up to departure from it, at least, while additional exits will not be built.
10. As by us already it was stated above, it is much more important to establish the high-speed unceasing movement allowing for 10-20 minutes crossing the considerable proportion of the city on all highways, than all the rest as highways are the main transport arteries of the city and at establishment on them unceasing movement (without congestion and jams) is practically solved a problem of transport collapse, i.e. thousands, and in the large cities tens of thousands and more cars on highways can move easily around the city without congestion and jams on them, unlike how it is now. As for "a possible unacceptable big latency period of an allowing signal of the traffic light before entrance to the highway", short-term expectation (as a rule, some minutes before entrance to the highway for each car during the intense periods of movement), practically only in rush hours on expressly allocated platforms is immeasurably more profitable than a delay of cars within 2-3 hours in jams on highways as it occurs every day on highways practically all large cities.
11. The proposed technique allows avoiding condensation of transport streams. Rarefied (free) transport streams with high-speed unceasing movement are formed with its help on highways. Therefore cars can maneuver easily in these conditions. It is necessary because in city conditions in the presence of nearby from each other located entries on the highway and exits from them cars at entrances and departures should move often from one lane to another. For providing it, the distance between cars has to be larger, than when movement without maneuvers as it, for example, occurs on long-distance highways where it is little exits. In other words, maneuvering on lanes distract the driver, on the average increasing time on adoption of these or those decisions by it (delay time). Therefore theoretically greatest possible throughput of city highways without the traffic lights, making about 3000 cars per hour for one lane at speeds from 30 to 100 km/h, decreases approximately to 2000 cars per hour for one lane. Nevertheless, this size of throughput is significantly higher than present average in days in the cities of throughput of highways at uncontrollable entrance of cars on them. But the main thing not it, but that in lack of congestion and jams high speed on highways allows cars to cross all city for tens of minutes. For establishment and preservation of a mode of high-speed unceasing movement the number of cars on highways is automatically regulated by the technique described above. As a result the speed of a transport stream at the specified fluctuations, for example, from 50 km/h to 90 km/h does not fall to low values and averages about 70 km/h not only in rush hours, but also at the emergency cases or repair on a track. In the latter case for a detour the buffer lanes allocated at the edges of highways are used.
12. It is known that the astronomical sums are spent without results within more than 10 years of fight against jams in Moscow and in the majority of other large cities as congestion and jams only grow together with number of cars. Nevertheless, it is supposed that these useless expenditure to be carried out and further. Use of the technique of regulation of transport streams "ramp metering" improved by us on highways without traffic lights in comparison with construction or expansion of roads will do rather cheap: regulation of process of entrance of cars to the highway will require the traffic lights, as a rule, already installed on entrances, radars, boards, controllers which program should be reconfigured only. But it only if is not required installation of overpasses through the highway.
13. Only use of the technique of regulation of transport streams "ramp metering" improved by us on highways with traffic lights increases throughput of current highways approximately by 1.5 times and it is equivalent by one this index to the corresponding growth of a network of thoroughfares, that will save for the large cities not one billion dollars. It is possible to add to it decrease of losses of time in paths, losses of fuel which is being spent in vain in jams, as well as decrease of volume of exhaust gas entering in air, etc.
14. If the city administration does not have an opportunity to transformation the highway to the road without adjustable intersections, it is possible to apply other technique of the organization of unceasing movement on highways (with traffic lights, see the previous chapter). Essence of the technique is reduced to establishment on the highway of the continuous movement of cars by columns, between which gets to gaps for the time term necessary for passage of cars crossing the highway and for transition of pedestrians through the intersection. In this case, as well in the first, extreme right lanes to each party of movement on the highway are transferred in buffer, i.e. they are used only for entrance to the highway, departure from it as well as for detour of the happened accidents or at repair. Traffic lights are installed on each entrance (intersection) to the highway. These traffic lights are operated via the controller by sensors counting cars (now this function is carried out, as a rule, by video cameras) according to the program which forbids by cars to enter to the highway until decrease in number of cars in a column up to the established level, for example, to level 20% of the greatest possible number of cars in a column at an average speed of a transport stream, for example, 70 km/h. As a result, the transport stream in the form of separate automobile columns on the remained lanes is transformed in high-speed, continuous. Throughput for each lane is retained about 1500 cars per hour, despite existence on the highway of intersections. At this, in order to avoid stream braking, the left-hand turn on the highway is forbidden.
Let's explain the specified. The offered way of regulation of car traffic on the highway consists that crossing by a transport stream of the intersection to a descent by columns with the corresponding gaps between them is realized. Maximum throughput for highways with traffic lights also is provided because of this. For this purpose a stream of vehicles with gaps is formed by cut off car stream at intersections. Stream consist of columns which to a descent, one after another, keeping the established interval between car columns determined by time of the forbidding signal of the traffic light, cross each intersection on the highway on allowing signal of the traffic light. Cars after arriving on the highway on a buffer lane are joined to the nearest column after speedup on a buffer lane.
Obligatory measure for unceasing movement of the created columns is some kind of "phasing" of a stream of vehicles, i.e. the solution of a problem of a delivery of head cars of each separate column to the intersection by the time of emergence of an allowing signal of the traffic light. It is provided by informing of the driver of the car one way or another about time remaining up to emergence of the allowing signal of the traffic light. Drivers of head cars and the drivers following first, seeing time, remaining up to emergence of an allowing signal, anyway manipulate traveling speed of the car and by that provide approach to the intersection of head cars of a column by the time of emergence of an allowing signal of the traffic light without the considerable differences in the speed of columns.
Correction of speed of cars on stages depending on indications of information displays can be made also automatically by reading by video sensors in car of formation from a board or the traffic light, its processing and transfer of the corresponding signal on the sensor - a speed regulator which makes necessary change of speed of the car according to the transmitted data on time before change of a sign of the traffic light within the established interval of speeds, video sensors also accept information on presence of pedestrians on the highway and consider safety distance to the next cars with transfer of the corresponding commands for a control system of the car (see, e.g., patent Russian Federation No. 2317592).
In case of use of means of "phasing" of a transport stream all traffic lights of the highway should have an identical cycle of work, or identical duration of an allowing signal that provides invariable number of cars in a column and identical pass of a column through all intersections, i.e. additional cars will not accumulate in a column at emergence of a forbidding signal. Besides, it will provide synchronization of movement of counter flows of cars on the highway.
Duration of an allowing signal corresponds to traveling speed of a transport stream between intersections when overcoming average extent of a stage.
Traffic lights of the neighboring intersections of the highway work in antiphase.
In the course of movement on the highway the part of cars leaves the highway that reduces number of cars in a column. Therefore for maintaining of high efficiency of use of the highway and high efficiency of use of vehicles it is necessary to regulate number of cars in a column.
Sensors of counting of cars of the type most suitable for a concrete case can be used for regulation of number of cars in a column, for example, the video cameras which application allows excluding damage of a road covering and for which use many rather inexpensive programs are already developed. Various movement sensors can be used also, for example, inductive sensors, etc. Number of the cars moving in a column is being fixed with their help. Further processed information is transferred to the actuation device which gives command on inclusion of an allowing signal of the entrance traffic light from the lateral direction only at decrease of number of cars in a column for 20%, for example, from 100 cars to 80 and switches a signal of the entrance traffic light on forbidding when number of cars in a column will be restored (to 100) at the expense of entered cars. Set of this inventory makes some kind of automatic device of a traffic control at each intersection.
Practically, number of cars in a column is defined by parameters of the highway and duration of an allowing signal of the traffic light.
It should be noted that stop of these or those cars is not dangerous as these cars are cut off from one column and join another. And the unequal extent of stages between intersections and possible dissimilarity of signals forbidding movement are compensated by change of traveling speed of a column between intersections.
It is possible to inform drivers about time of switching of the traffic light in various ways. For example, before emergence of an allowing signal to include a yellow signal or large figures against a red signal to report about remaining time up to emergence of an allowing (green) signal of the traffic light. It is also possible to use a board of the big size.
Analysis of the main variants for non-stop traffic on urban highways.
All the above ways of establishing non-stop traffic on the highways, are fundamentally new approach to the organization of non-stop movement due to the fact that all known methods of fight against jams were inefficient. And there is no wonder, as it was proved several years ago, what even theoretically this problem is not solved.
It is paradoxical, than was under construction roads, junctions more, it was more used intellectual systems and other automated systems, there were jams more. Visually it is visible on the example of Moscow, New York and other megalopolises. Therefore restrictions on journey of cars in number of the cities (London, Stockholm) were compelled to enter.
Thus, it is possible to tell that if highways of your city are really overloaded, especially in rush hours, any measures for reconstruction and other traditional ways of the solution of transport problems will not be able to unload the highway.
Therefore we do not lose hope that our main principle: to refuse from useless fight against jams in overload conditions of highways, and it is simple not to allow modes at which they arise, it will be perceived more adequately.
In other words, all traditional organizational and technical measures, as practice on the movement organization in the cities abroad showed, are effective only prior to process of an overload of highways (highways without traffic lights in Moscow type TTR or MRAR mean), at which possibilities of highways on maintaining of a mode of the free stream (throughput of one lane makes about 2000 cars per hour), are exhausted. And it can be explained by aim into the highway of such number of cars which they cannot contain that quickly conducts to condensation of a transport stream, decrease in traveling speed to 10-15 km/h, and then - to emergence of congestion, jams, contingency situations. Therefore we offered a technique of preservation of a mode of the free stream on operating highways without intersections, without allowing essential condensation of transport streams, having improved the American technique of local controlled entrance into highway "ramp metering".
As for highways with traffic lights (adjustable intersections) or highways with start-stop mode of movement which mostly are used in the cities of the whole world, capacity of a lane of similar highways makes in average 500 cars per hour, and maximum throughput of a lane - no more than 800 cars per hour.
Such highway can be turned into the highway without intersections, having erected through it platforms. At this throughput of a lane can be increased to 2000 cars per hour. It is expedient in some cases, but expensively and demands time as well installation over such highway of platforms longitudinally with increased throughput, for example in two levels. However in some cases, especially, if the similar highway has not less than six lanes, it is possible to transform rather cheaply it to the highway with unceasing movement of cars in the form of columns with gaps between them, having raised throughput of its lane up to 1000-15000 cars per without any additional construction. It resembles "a green wave" superficially, but, in fact, it differs significantly because of use of several unusual, but the efficient approaches allowing all the time to retain high-speed, unceasing movement synchronously in both directions and by that, to provide transition of pedestrians and passage of cars across the highway in gaps between columns.
Both techniques are characteristic also that practically it is possible to retain high-speed, unceasing movement even at accidents on the highway or at repair of part of its lanes.
1. The highway-platform with a parking.
The lightweight two-storeyed closed highway-platform (with the top parking level and installations of neutralization of exhaust gas) on steel framework and with steel spans covered with thin layer of steel-fiber-concrete [1,2,4], intends for passenger cars (90% of all vehicles).
Its levels are connected among themselves and ground level by external and/or internal interstorey crossings. Buffer lanes are located at the edges of each storey. The number of entries and exits is coordinated among themselves. The equipment for implementation in case of need of controlled entrance of cars is installed on entries.
Eight lanes at both levels of movement provide in the sum throughput about 16 thousand cars per hour. Speed of conveyance of cars can fluctuate in the range of 60-100 km/h. Exhaust fans and discharge devices, regularly installed at all levels of the closed space of highway-platform, provide neutralization of an exhaust and do this highway- platform ecologically safe (pure).
From 600 to 1000 cars can be parked on 1 km of the top level of a highway- platform. Cars can drive in on parking level both from any storey of a highway- platform, and from ground level.
The specific cost of a lane (1 km) makes $0.9-1.0 million, the cost of 1 km of a highway- platform - $7.85mln. The cost of square meter of spans of all three levels, including parking (54000m²), makes $145, and the cost of 1 m² lanes (eight lanes with width 3 meters everyone, all 24000m²) - $330. Thus this cost includes the cost of all materials and costs of production of standard blocks, their delivery, a salary taking into account taxes, the cost of a preparatory work, the cost of a crane lease and a lease of other gears for assembly, the cost of installations for neutralization of exhaust gases, etc. Rather low costs for highway-platform construction generally are determined by its fast assemblage from standard metal blocks and sections on bolts.
Besides, from comparison of weight of similar designs from concrete and on the basis of rolled metal it is visible that steel highway- platform is 4 times lighter than concrete platform in spite of the fact that not less than 50% of weight of steel highway- platform are the share of a steel-fiber-concrete road coating. At the same time, the cost of designs is approximately identical if to take the cost of steelwork as $1000 for ton.
As for the cost of various steelwork, their specific distribution and respectively cost is as follows: 80% of black rolled metal are steel plates of spans (at thickness of plate 10 mm its costs makes 24-27 thousand rubles for ton, channel section costs from 25500 rubles to 29000 rubles for ton), 15% - longitudinal and cross beams (28800 rubles for ton), 2% - supports-columns in the form of tubes (41000 rubles for ton).
These data on the price are taken at the concrete Moscow enterprises selling steelwork of specified types (see, e.g. "Steel-about". Moscow, Novovladykinsky Drive, 8, p. 5, ph. 495 661-70-61, site: steel-pro.ru). There are approximately the same prices of this production and at other similar enterprises. So it isn't found excess of cost of a new construction on materials, and the prices of a steel basis of a highway- platform in average make slightly less than $1000 for ton, and the rest is the same concrete and other. Besides blocks and construction sections on open sites are protected by an anticorrosion covering, and between a surface of spans from metal and a steel-fiber-concrete road coating the waterproofer is laid.
Specific parameters (1km) of the highway- platform are as follows: mass of steel – 4100tons, mass of cement – 7100 tons.
In drawing above is shown the highway-platform with external entries, exits, crossings from one storey on another, parking platforms, and in drawing below is shown the configuration of lanes for passage of cars consistently from one level on another (internal moving).
2. The simplified option of a two-level highway-platform (without parking platforms and clearing installations).
This option of a platform-platform also has eight lanes on both levels [1,24], but has no parking platforms and clearing installations. Therefore specific costs (1km) make about $5 million. The cost of 1 km of a lane makes about $0.6 million. The cost of square meter of spans of two levels (36000m²) makes about $140. Rather low costs of highway-platform construction generally are determined by fast assemblage on bolts of standard metal blocks and sections.
To eliminate misunderstanding of ways of achievement of so low expenses, we will note the following. First of all, it is necessary to have the arranged production of standard sections and highway-platform blocks. Then sections and blocks have to be delivered in due time to the prepared platform for their assembly generally on bolts at minimum of welding works by prepared team of experts in the presence of the corresponding equipment and gears. This procedure according to in advance fulfilled scheme takes the small period of time depending on extent of a site, degree of readiness of assembly sites, existence of assembly units, the organizations of their transportation, resources of labor, the equipment, etc.
In China, for example, a thirty-storey skyscraper at the beginning of 2013 was assembled for 15 days.
Installation of pile framework from steel tubes doesn't take a lot of time on condition of that support-tubes are driven in into in advance defined points according to data of soil investigation and schemes of the laid city communications. Movement of cars at these operations on ground highways doesn't interrupt. Known and long ago fulfilled procedures of drawing corrosion-resistant coating, waterproofer, steel-fiber-concrete, etc. proceed not for long at the corresponding training of specialists and materials, as well as installation of lateral walls and a roof from nonflammable plastic. Placing on highway-platform of equipment and devices, such as entrance traffic lights with radars and controllers, light sources, video recorders, communication lines, boards, sensors for monitoring, fire-prevention and evacuation equipment, watching centers, possible helipads, various accompanying cables and pipelines can't be long if such equipment is prepared and delivered to highway-platform in time. That is procedure has to be developed to details, preparatory work is complete, leased cranes and other gears are ready to work, experts too are ready, standard blocks have been made and are being brought with the necessary frequency to already built framework. All this is rather simply if it is in advance fulfilled on the experimental sample. After that highway-platform on already debugged technology and at industrial production of standard blocks are being installed quickly in defined places of city and in defined places of suburb on purpose "eradication" of traffic jams.
As for a problem of finding of the additional areas for entrance and departure on highway-platform on condition of dense city building, this problem found for a long time the permission in other cities (see, e.g., Tokyo with its most dense building): there entrance and departure sites are hoisted over sidewalks and streets. It is easy to carry out in the presence of offered lightweight and oversized construction in comparison with bulky concrete platforms – without big expenses and efforts: entries and exits can be mounted not on bulky concrete columns, and on steel support-tubes of rather small diameter. Besides, on condition of dense building it is possible to choose from our technical solutions also option of a design of highway- platform with internal interstorey crossings. Exits and entries in this case can directly be brought to one of ground lanes of a highway, without going beyond a projection of highway-platform to ground highway.
Concerning general throughput of all construction which can have the beginning and the end, i.e. points of concentration of transport on which in usual conditions the average speed of movement falls, can be told the following.
In the cities, as a rule, it is necessary to install the through radial highway-platform. The beginning of such platform is situated in one suburb and the end in another suburb from the opposite side. They can bend around the downtown not to affect its sight. Therefore the overwhelming part of cars as well as in the presence of enough frequent exits leaves a highway-platform not in final points which are in the country place and to which reach the few cars. So these final points aren't more points of concentration.
Further, except through radial highway-platform can be installed ring highway-platform. Ring highway-bridges at all have no points of concentration of transport as they have no ends. As for possible joints of highways, in particular, in South Korea the option of joints for multilevel platforms is offered . But, naturally, can be and other options of joints or there can be usual interchanges.
And even, if to allow emergence of points of concentration, speed falling on all highway doesn't happen as it is the same case of emergence of congestion. It is solved by application of our improved technique "ramp metering", i.e. by application of controlled entrance of cars on platform with use of through buffer lanes.
Specific parameters of this type of highway-platform: the mass of steel – 2600tons, the mass of cement – 4500 tons.
The highway-platform can be elevated part loaded considerable part of days of a city highway as well as elevated part of the overloaded long-distance highway. For example, in case of installation over a ground highway of eight-lane highway-platform, on its first or second level cars from ground highway pass on lateral offtake-entry (the buffer lane is formed before entry on this site of a highway in order to avoid braking of the main transport stream). Cars also can drive into the second storey from the first storey along interstorey crossing. From the second storey of a highway-platform cars, having passed the part of a way, can move down along lateral offtake-exit on ground highway directly or having gone down from the second storey on the first along interstorey crossing, cars can go down from the first storey along exit on ground level. At these moving, in order to avoid congestion, buffer lanes are used. Besides, on adjacent to exit of highway-platform sites of a ground highway for simplification of departure of cars from highway-platform on lanes of a ground highway on its edge the buffer lane is formed.
The ground highway can be provided to movement generally of public and heavy transport.
3. A single-level highway-platform.
If, for example, in the city loading (throughput) on highway in the next years, by calculations, doesn't exceed 10 thousand cars, then one level of highway-platform with four lanes and two buffer lanes enough will be to install over a ground highway. Throughput of this highway-platform with the organization in specified way of unceasing movement makes for one lane about 2000 cars per hour. Then entries on elevated level and exits from it to ground highway become crossings from ground level to elevated level and total throughput of elevated and ground highways will be more than 10 000 cars per hour. As for costs of assemblage and installation of a single-level highway-platform on steel framework in comparison with two-level highway-platform will decrease approximately twice its costs will make about $2.5 million on one kilometer. Specific prime cost of one lane of highway-platform remains approximately to the same, as for two-level highway-platform - $0.6 million. Average speed of movement on elevated highway will make about 75 km/h.
Practice of installation of single-level elevated highway along ground highways and over them in Vietnam is known. However there the movement mode on ground and elevated levels remains traditional, behind the only exception: movement direction at both levels is established by the opposite. In other words, for example, if on ground level cars move to the south, on elevated level cars move to the north.
If it is required to increase throughput of a platform it is not too difficult to mount one more level over available level of a platform, having increased the total throughput of a platform up to 16 thousand cars per hour.
4. The organization of unceasing movement on operating ground highways without intersections.
The technique of the organization of unceasing movement of cars, i.e. movements without congestion and traffic jams, developed by us for overpasses and elevated highways is quite suitable and for usual ground highways without traffic lights (without intersections) with that restriction that, unlike multilane highway-platforms with interlinked levels, number of lanes on ground highway is rather insignificant as well as total throughput of the route less . However, despite it, under the conditions defined by us favorable mode of unceasing movement can be established and on a ground highway.
Let's note some signs of this technique. On the basis of known technique of steering traffic - "ramp metering" (USA) , i.e. implementation of controlled entrance on separate road sites  and taking into account a new paradigm in the theory of transport flows of Semenov V. V. , we developed the technique allowing in any case to retain density of a transport stream in the set limits not on separate sites, and on all highway extent and not to allow of falling of its speed below the set level. For this purpose, or for maintenance of continuity and high speed of movement of a transport stream, the following is undertaken. Extreme right lanes are transformed on each party of movement of highway in buffer, or these lanes is used only for entrance on a highway, departure from it as well as for bypass of places of happened accidents or repair. On each entrance to a highway the traffic lights are installed. The traffic lights are steered through the controller by radar on the program which forbids cars to drive in highway in the case falling speed of a stream below, for example, 60 km/h. As the result, the transport stream on the remained lanes turns in free, high-speed, continuous and throughput for each lane makes about 2000 cars per hour .
At the same time, it should be noted that for transformation of highway with intersections in highway without them it is necessary to install elevated or underground overpasses for cars and pedestrians crossing a highway.
In particular, we supposed the following option of elevated lightweight overpass of the simplest design on steel framework. This design represents overpass of one-way traffic for cars through highway from lateral streets. Drawings and the description of designs are given in previous chapter.
5. The organization of unceasing movement on operating ground highways with adjustable intersections.
If opportunity to transform highways with adjustable intersections (with traffic lights) in highways with unceasing movement (without traffic lights) isn't available, it is possible to apply another our technique of the organization of unceasing movement on highways with the traffic lights (intersections). Essence of this technique is reduced to establishment on highway of non-stop traffic in the form of car columns (pools), the period necessary for journey of cars crossing highway and for transition of pedestrians through the intersection  fits to gaps between columns. In other words, when separate columns (pools) of cars are formed, then gaps, or intervals between columns find oneself at movement of columns on forbidding (red) signal of a traffic light, and columns – on allowing (green) signal of a traffic light. That is at traffic lights working in antiphase at the neighboring intersections through each intersection during action of an allowing signal there passes a column of cars, and after change of a signal on opposite in the formed rupture of columns pass cars of the cross directions. Such approach allows to be led in the same way columns of cars of an opposite direction on highways with two-way traffic. And feature of this approach is that at the fixed interval of action of a signal of all traffic lights, for example, 40 seconds, traffic control transfers as though from a traffic light to drivers of the front part of each automobile column who brake if see that the column goes too quickly and it can appear at the intersection before change of a red signal on green or, on the contrary, drivers add to gas if the speed of a column is insufficient to use all the time of work of an allowing signal. In this case as well as in the first, extreme right lanes are transferred for each party of movement on a highway in buffer lanes. These lanes are used only for entrance on highway, departure from it as well as for bypass of places of the happened accidents or repair. On each entrance on highway the traffic lights steered through the controller by recalculating sensors on the program which forbids cars entrance on highway up to decrease of number of cars in column to the established level, for example, to level 80% from the greatest possible number of cars in the column at average speed of transport stream, for example, 75 km/h.
As a result, the transport stream in the form of separate automobile columns on the remained lanes turns in high-speed, unceasing stream and with throughput for each lane up to 1500 cars per hour, despite existence on a highway of intersections. Besides this transport stream is synchronous in both directions of movement, unlike, so-called, "a green wave". At the same time, in order to avoid stream braking, the left turning movement on a highway is forbidden.
Thus, on highways with traffic lights (intersections) quickly and rather cheap version of technique of the organization of unceasing movement of cars in the form of their movement by columns with gaps between them can be used. During these gaps moving of cars and transition of pedestrians through the intersection is carried out. The technique differs from known "a green wave" synchronism of movement of columns in both directions thanks to synchronism of work of traffic lights in both parties of movement and by application of the principle of "phasing", or participation of drivers of the front part of each column in approach timely of each column to signal of traffic light allowing pass of a column of cars through the intersection.
Short comparison of the proposed solutions on economic indexes.
For an illustration we will consider transformation of a usual six-lane highway with adjustable intersections (traffic lights) by length 20 km in high-speed, non-stop highway with increased throughput.
First, the closed highway-platform on steel framework with two levels of movement and additional parking level can be installed over it. Thus, 8 lanes with throughput of 16 thousand cars per hour and the average speed of movement of cars on them 75 km/h are added to ground lanes. It is possible to install, to supply with the equipment, to test and to start in action this highway-platform for some months having provided that corresponding number of standard blocks for fast assembly of the highway-platform will be made. Expenditures (1 km) of this ecologically safe (pure), non-stop construction make: $7.85mln x 20 = $157mln.
Secondly, the two-level highway-platform on steel framework without parking level can be installed over six-lane highway. Thus, 8 lanes with throughput of 16 thousand cars per hour and the average speed of movement of cars on them 75 km/h are added to ground lanes. It is possible to install, to supply with the equipment, to test and to start in action this highway-platform for some months having provided that corresponding number of standard blocks for fast assembly of the highway-platform will be made. Expenditures (1 km) of this ecologically safe (pure), non-stop construction make: $5mln x 20 = $100mln.
Thirdly, the single-level highway-platform on steel framework can be installed over six-lane highway. Thus, 4 lanes with throughput 8 thousand cars per hour and the average speed of movement of cars on them 75 km/h are added to ground lanes. It is possible to install, to supply with the equipment, to test and to start in action this highway-platform for some months having provided that the corresponding number of standard blocks for fast assembly of the highway-platform will be made. Expenditures (1 km) of this ecologically safe (pure), non-stop construction make: $2.5mln x 20 = $50mln.
Fourthly, it is possible to throw through a highway at intersections lightweight overpasses with one-way traffic with change of its direction (sign) at the neighboring intersections, to transfer extreme lanes of a highway in buffer lanes, to install or reprogram the traffic light equipment at intersections for the organization during heavy traffic (rush hours) of controlled entrance of cars on a highway and, thereby, to provide unceasing movement with throughput on a lane 2000 cars per hour. Throughput for four lanes remained from six lanes will make 8000 cars per hour (two extreme on the right lanes are transformed in buffer lanes) instead as show measurements, on the average 3 000 cars per hour on a usual six-lane highway with adjustable intersections, or start - stop mode of movement. Average speed of stream after this reorganization will make 75 km/h, but not less than 60 km/h for what the corresponding board-indexes have to be installed. Installation of lightweight overpasses and the equipment for entrance monitoring on a highway at intersections on the average through each 0.5 km according to preliminary estimates makes about $600 thousand for one intersection. Costs of this re-equipment in terms of 20 km will make $0.6mln x 40 = $24mln. Calculation is made of the assumption of installation of overpasses through each 0.5 km. Overpasses can be installed and at bigger distance, for example, 1 km (through one intersection). Then the sum of expenses on segment 20 km will decrease approximately twice, but also number of through crossings too will decrease twice.
For a number of city highways because of dense building number of overpasses can be minimized – one or two by 5-10 km if their throughput corresponds to intensity of cross transport flows, and locally their throughput can be increased at the expense of introduction of the second level (see the description of overpasses).
As for pedestrians, inexpensive elevated (with escalators) or subway overpasses can be built for them with bigger regularity. Such solution of a question of cross transit will reduce financial costs several times.
The administration of each city has to solve the matter, proceeding from own resources, intensity of movement, density of building, arrangement of roads and streets, etc.
Fifthly, it is possible to organize unceasing movement on a highway with traffic lights (with intersections) in the form of columns (pools) with the corresponding gaps between them. The period necessary for journey of cars crossing highway and for transition of pedestrians through the intersection fall to gaps between columns. Synchronism of movement of columns in both directions is carried out thanks to synchronism of work of traffic lights in both parties of movement and by application of the principle of "phasing", or participation of drivers of the front part of each column in approach timely of each column of cars to signal of traffic light allowing pass of a column of cars through the intersection. On each entry to highway the traffic lights steered through the controller by recalculating sensors on the program which forbids cars entrance on highway up to decrease of number of cars in column to the established level. Operating on a highway from six lanes remain 4 lanes, and 2 lanes are transformed to the category of the buffer. Thus, throughput of a lane which will decrease in comparison with the highway without traffic lights (option 4) owing to emergence of gaps between columns (smaller traffic density) a little, will be on the average 1250 cars per hour on one lane and in the sum – about 5000 cars per hour instead of 3000 cars per hour on six-lane highway at usual start - stop organization of movement. Average speed will make 75 km/h. Costs for re-equipment of intersection, according to preliminary estimates, will make about $100 thousand that for all highway with traffic lights by length 20 km and intersections through each 0.5 kilometers will make in this case $0.1mln x 40 = $4mln. The cost of re-equipment can be significantly reduced if only replacement of the software and additional installation of board-indexes be required.
It is possible to provide the following data for comparison. According to Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation the lane of a ground highway (1km) on the average across Russia costs $1.5mln (ng.ru›Ýêîíîìèêà›…/1_millionometry.html).
Thus, about $10mln is spent for construction of a six-lane ground highway (1 km) on the average in Russia, or one square meter of this highway costs about $500. In terms of 20km construction of similar highway in Russia on the average costs $200mln, and this construction is usually tightened for a long time and it has very mediocre quality at the exit. Average speed of movement of cars on highways of this kind in Moscow in days according to recent data makes 24 km/h. Total throughput of similar six-lane highway with traffic lights at intersections (start - stop movement) on the average makes 3000 cars per hour. Besides, we will note that for the majority of the cities with expensive land plots and dense building cost of construction of highways is significantly more, and congestion and traffic jams on them, especially in rush hours, arise regularly.
Thus, the city administration can choose the most acceptable option on the organization of unceasing movement from specified, proceeding from the financial, technical and ideological reasons if, of course, the problem with traffic jams is for it actual.
Option 5 is the cheapest and fast ($200 thousand for two intersections). This variant doesn't assume installation of highway-platform or overpasses. But throughput of a highway increases only approximately by 1.5 times.
Option 4 is more expensive (six times more expensively than option 5 on specific indicator, i.e. at installation of two overpasses for two intersections. However growth of throughput of a highway will be almost three times more in comparison with a usual highway with traffic lights.
Option 3 - installation over a ground highway with intersections on all its extent of a single-level highway-platform is more expensive than option 5 in 12.5 times on specific indicator, but this option allows to increase highway throughput in the sum (taking into account ground part with usual movement and elevated level with high-speed, unceasing movement of vehicles) almost in 4 times. If the ground highway is transformed to a highway with unceasing movement, total throughput of the general system will increase more than five times, but thus expenses increase because of need of ensuring cross movement.
Option 2 - installation over a ground highway with intersections on all its extent – longitudinally – of a two-level highway-platform is more expensive than option 5 - in 25 times, but option 2 allows to increase highway throughput taking into account only a highway-platform more than by 5 times.
Option 1 - installation over six-lane ground highway of two-storey ecologically safe highway-platform with additional parking level is more expensively than option 5 almost in 40 times, but option 1 allows not only to increase throughput of the general system of highways more than in 6 times, but option 1 does air in the city purer and provides additional cheap parking spaces. Besides, if the stream of cars significantly increases, parking level can be transformed in movement level quickly and with the minimum expenses. In this case highway-platform throughput will increase on third: with 16 thousand cars per hour to 24 thousand cars per hour.
It should be noted that the integrated throughput of highways can be increased even more if, in parallel with installation of the two-level highway-platform, to transform a usual ground highway in a ground highway with unceasing movement on option 4 or 5. In this case integrally throughput of a highway can increase as much as possible - by 8 times.
If to compare the average cost of 1 km of lane of a ground highway across the Russian Federation and cost of lane on a two-storey highway-platform without parking level (option 2), it is almost three times higher than the last, and the average speed of cars on such ground lane is three times lower. Thus it should be noted that because of expensive land allocation and, as a rule, need of rerun of heating mains and other city communications this specific cost of a highway increases in the cities up to the improbable sizes. For example, it increases up to $700mln for kilometer in Moscow.
Besides necessity of the organization one way or another unceasing movement from the specified follows also from that circumstance that losses following the universal motorization already reached astronomical sizes (see the table given above).
List of reference
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