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Why doesn't hope leave us?
17 марта ’2021 00:06Просмотров: 558
What's the most common for everybody? - The hope, for if someone has nothing else, then it is.
Hope is a waking dream.
Hope is the desire of the soul to convince itself that the desired will come true.
It is always better to hope than to despair.
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
It seems that everyone understands what hope is, but, nevertheless, its versatility and ambiguity thinkers of different historical eras have not been able to reduce to something fundamentally defined, pointing to one or the other properties of it and attaching to hope excessively negative or positive meaning. Let us try to define the phenomenon of hope by comparing it with fear, imagination, liberty and interest.
Key words: consciousness, dissatisfaction, hope, opportunity, interesting, freedom, fear, despair, need, desire, action.
Table of contents
1. Historical excursion.
2, Identifying the source and meaning of the phenomenon of hope.
3. Fear and hope are two sides of the same coin.
4. Hope as a harbinger of liberty through imagination.
5. Hope as an undeveloped form of the interesting.
6. Hope for the eternal life of consciousness in alive.
The positive meaning of hope in all historical eras stems from the idea that one cannot hope for the worst, although it is also possible, but the phenomenon of fear is responsible for it.
However, the contradictions of hope lie in the fact that, assuming future in the good, it can focus only on past knowledge, that is, only on their extrapolation into the future, which may not correspond to this knowledge, and this factor mostly leads to the collapse of hopes in the good. destroying human life. Therefore, whenever possible, each person should try to translate hope into a goal, for the achievement of which he already can no longer just wish in anticipation, but develop a plan of action using at least the methods known to him that contribute to the achievement of the goal. Unfortunately, most people are inactive and prefer to wait for manna from heaven, focusing only on hope, and most often getting disappointed, and even then - at best.
In fact, the objective reason for the incapacity for work of hope is the almost complete absence of information that can help translate the image of the desired into reality.
The negativity of hope also consists in its weakness, since a person who hopes for someone or for something does not have confidence in the fulfillment of hope due to lack of knowledge about the essence of events, and can only assume the course of events, in connection with which the probability of carrying out what is sought is not too high, and it depends mostly on the experience of a concrete individual, that is, hope in its present seeks support in the past, assuming the desired future, but at the same time, purely objectively, a lot of mistakes and stupidities are committed, which are essential slow down the process of development.
Along with that, relatively short life of a person, in which he manages to do little, because he does not catch the passage of time due to the slow development of self-consciousness and, therefore, adequate mass assimilation of information coming as a result of his own activity, gives him only a hope for a prosperous future at the beginning of the path, and at the end of life's journey also leaves a person with nothing more than hope for life after death.
It turns out that hope is almost the main phenomenon in human life, despite its ephemerality. This undoubtedly indicates the transience and insignificance of human life, as such, transferring the center of consideration of the matter from a person to his consciousness, since only hope remains that, at least consciousness will not disappear without a trace.
That is, even here there is only an unsubstantiated hope, but still it is she who is capable of encouraging or at least comforting a person in his by no means endless life.
But first, let's turn to the ideas of some thinkers about hope over the past few millennia.
1. Historical excursion
In his Dialogues (Fileb), the famous philosopher of ancient Hellas, Plato, asserts that hope is the expectation of good, which is achievable for reasonable people, but unrealizable for unreasonable (bad) people.
At the same time, Plato thinks that hope does not depend on a person, believing its attachment to him is rather dubious (Timaeus): "... They (the divine beings) have attached to him another, mortal kind of soul, putting into it dangerous and dependent on the need for states: ... pleasure, suffering, audacity and dread, anger and hope, which is too easy to hearken to seductions" [1. Plato. Collected works in 4 volumes. T. 3. M. Thought, 1994].
Indeed, a reasonable person will not hope for the incredible, the fabulous, the stupid, but, nevertheless, the probabilistic, indefinite nature of hope implies in any case the doubtfulness of hope, since passive waiting can lead to anything, if do not act, but to act, according to Plato, it is impossible here, since there are no ways to achieve the desired.
Obviously, this is what Plato had in mind when he argued that hope does not depend on a person. Plato immediately noticed the negative quality of hope, which is reflected in its frequent infidelity and deception.
Having pointed out quite rightly some properties of hope, Plato, nevertheless, did not clarify where, in fact, the hope came from, since the reference to the gods indicates precisely this, and did not give a clear definition of hope, so how one can expect benefits not only by hoping, but also by putting your hands under their flow, which happens not so rarely.
No less famous philosopher of antiquity Aristotle believed that hope is a waking dream [2. Book V, 1].
It is difficult to argue with this statement, since hope is only an image, not a real object.
However, at the same time, hope does not appear arbitrarily, like some kind of dream, but is put forward by a person as a perspective at this moment - in the form of what is desired, but so far unattainable, and nevertheless, what is possible, which in itself makes it by a “pointing finger” for a person, allowing him not to stop at what has been achieved, but to look into the future, which, thanks to hope, becomes possible in the preferred version, which sets the individual in an optimistic mood.
That is, Aristotle, like Plato, has noted only one of the negative characteristics of hope.
Stoics correlated hope with fear and saw nothing particularly pleasant in either one or the other. In particular, Seneca, in his letters to Lucilius, stated the following: “As one chain connects the guard and the captive, so fear and hope, so dissimilar to each other, come at the same time: after hope, fear appears. I am not surprised at this: after all, both of them are inherent to a soul uncertain, anxious about the expectation of the future. And the main reason for hope and fear is our inability to adjust to the present, and the habit of sending our thoughts far ahead. Beasts run only at the sight of dangers, and when they run away from them, they no longer experience fear. We are tormented by both the future and the past ... " [3. Letter V].
Realists Stoics have preferred to ignore the positive meaning of hope for a person in life, leaning more towards firmness of spirit, fortitude and patience, although, of course, a person is still not a beast, and in difficult times hope can cheer him up, but Stoics in the personality of Seneca quite rightly pointed to the peculiarity and importance of the present, since in a fast-flowing reality the past cannot be returned, and the future is not yet present, and it, contrary to all calculations, may turn out to be by no means desirable in the present, contrary to all hopes.
Stoics, preferring firmness of spirit to hope, had in mind the weakness and infidelity of hope, which, in particular, is not able to affect the fatality of some diseases of loved ones, and the last hope for a posthumous life is actually unreliable, since no one has returned from the other world. Therefore, what else besides resilience can keep from falling into the abyss of despair because of their own helplessness.
Thus. Stoics, as and Plato and Aristotle, have noted the negative nature of hope, with the difference that they emphasized not on it, but on firmness of spirit and patience.
If Stoics, in their definitions of hope, operate by it within the framework of the real world, thereby indicating that everything for a living person ends with his death, then Christianity, in its understanding that the possibilities of knowledge end beyond the threshold of death, on the contrary, infers hope beyond the bounds of reality into the afterlife, presupposing salvation in it as the last hope, which, along with that, will always comfort in any hardships of reality, defining hope in the face of Filaret in the "Orthodox Catechism" as: "calming of the heart in God with the confidence that He constantly cares about our salvation and gives us the promised bliss" .
Along with that, Christianity points out that hope in life is a manifestation of God's participation in it, contributing to a person's striving for the ideal, that is, for justice, love, goodness, freedom, becoming no longer a dubious expectation and deception, but becoming a virtue.
In particular, the Russian religious philosopher A. S. Khomyakov points to faith and hope as holy gifts: “The creed contains the confession of the Church's teaching, but in order to know, that the hope of the church is inseparable from its teachings, its hope is also confessed: for it says "cherish hope", and not just believe what will happen" .
On the other hand, Christianity, not differing fatalism, does not consider that predestination prevails in the world, and therefore it could not but recognize hope as possession of the "future good," which is thereby achieved .
In addition, hope, as suggests, Christianity in its affirmation of the ideal, contributes to purification, correction and repentance.
In Protestantism, the hope for earthly well-being in persistent labor corresponds to the following maxim of Christ: "Meek persons are blissful wherefore they will inherit the earth". (The Gospel from Matthew. Hl. 5, item 5). And Luther, in particular, stated that, since God created the person to strive for spiritual things and to realize this goal, he rewarded man with various abilities and talents, then only labor can be the only real way for the manifestation of this divine gift .
But, if Christians hope for liberation from the sufferings of earthly life after death, the Jews believe that "God should be sought not on the other side of creation, but in the creation itself" [8, p. 343].
Therefore, Jews, unlike Christians, hope in their expectation for the coming of the messiah, which "...will free them from foreign rule, avenge all enemies, will reign over the Jews and enslave for them all the peoples of the earth, and give them purely fabulous well-being: will command the sea throw away pearls and all its treasures, will dress its people into the purple decorated with precious stones, and nourish it with mannoy even sweeter than that sent to them in the desert" [ibid., p. 115].
Islam, as an Abrahamic religion, also places its hopes on the help of God and the reward from him after death, but in addition to this, it quite pragmatically believes that hope can help a sick person who has fallen into despondency, not as a medicine, but as a means of getting out. from a stupor in the light of possible healing .
It should also be noted that in the development of Christian ideas about hope, considerations of a very heterogeneous nature have emerged.
In particular, the French religious philosopher Gabrielle Marcel believes that hope reveals the depths of the soul, putting up resistance to will and knowing, as well as - to sheer pragmatism up to the point of affirming the lively duration, aphoristically expressing this consideration in words: "... hope for the soul is the same as breathing for the body" and "to be" for the soul means "to be on the way" [10, p.198-211].
According to Marcel, hope resists will and knowledge so strongly that it focuses only on itself.
This thesis of Marcel means his misunderstanding of the essence of the soul and hope, since hope is only one of the properties of the soul, which helps the soul to strive for change: from hope, these changes virtually begin, the basis of which is dissatisfaction of soul with the available, and then already - with wording of the goals - the human soul, with the help of will strives to cognize the existence, the truth, overcoming all possible difficulties in beingness. Otherwise, its stay in beingness does not make sense, especially since it builds this beingness, using, in particular, hope - often wrong, but still as a guide in its expectations.
Unlike Marcel, the German philosopher Ernst Bloch in his work "The Principle of Hope" expresses the idea that hope is not connected with faith in God, but with striving for a just future, relying in this regard not only on Judaism, but also marxism .
However, such positive hopes were not justified due to the utopianism of the onset of world harmony, and the implementation of Marx's ideas failed in practice in achieving even socialist "harmony".
The German religious philosopher Jurgen Moltmann tried to unite in hope social and religious views, because, as he believed, hope not only strengthens faith, but also leads a person to new achievements, and the continuously continuing process of creation is a triumph of Christian ideals and the salvation of the world and a person: “A historical future without heaven cannot be a forecourt of hope and the motivation for any historical movement. "Transcendence without transcendence" such as Bloch proposed turns eternity into indefinite endlessness, and the striving for completeness turns merely in non-stop motion" [12,, p. 180].
And further: “Eschatology means not just the salvation of the soul, personal salvation from the evil world, only the consolation of a concerned conscience, but also the fulfillment of the legitimate hope of the last time, the humanization of a person, the socialization of mankind, the achievement of harmony of all creation. Creatively following Christ in love eschatologically became possible thanks to the perspective of the Christian hope for the future of God's kingdom and a person” [13, p. 240-241].
Such argumentation of Moltmann reduces the hope to the resurrection of Christ and the general resurrection of those who believe in him, that is, to external reasons, which is nonsense in itself. No less absurd is his statement about the coming of God's kingdom and man. It is interesting what a person will do there in complete goodness and harmony, what to a person will strive for if everything is already there and nothing else is needed.
Thus, the Abrahamic religions and their followers over-emphasize the positivity of hope.
If for animals the forerunner of hope - the expectation of an opportune moment for attack or defense, is indeed positive, since it rarely deceives them, then the hope of a person, "corrupted" in his self-consciousness by doubts, regrets, support on theories and hypotheses that do not stand up to any criticism, bad habits, senseless stubbornness, hypocrisy, the desire to succumb to false slogans and promises of a joyful and happy tomorrow, following false authorities, etc., for the most part cannot but deceive not only an individual, but also entire nations.
There are plenty of examples. Only Hitler, misanthropic sects, Karl Marx, Masons and other obscure communities claiming to rule the world are worth are worth anything.
Pastors of Christians, Jews and Muslims overly trust "hope", combining it, in fact, with faith in the future salvation, who knows where and by whom, i.e. in an illusion, without analyzing its essence and origins, but still noting its positive role in ordinary life.
Hinduism believes that nothing random happens in the world.
This means that a person's hope is reduced only to guessing something, obviously planned by someone unknown, which deprives it of its own foundation, which consists in free creativity. All the "hopes" of the followers of Hinduism are essentially reduced to the desire to move higher up the caste levels and merge with the Absolute. As for reincarnation, due to Hinduism's view of this process as cyclical, nothing new can happen in it .
In other words, the good for the Hindu is associated with faith, not with hope, and if hope still has to do, at least, with past knowledgeknowledge, then pure faith is reduced to one or another delusion, since no one knows anything about the otherworld. The Hindu is not afraid of death because he does not hope, but firmly believes in his reincarnations. The lack of creativity in Hinduism in practice led the whole country to stagnation for many hundreds of years, and even in the present fast-flowing time it comes out of hibernation very slowly.
That is, the actual substitution of hope by faith has shown, by the example of a whole large people, the real role of hope as a creative tool in the development of consciousness, culture and technology, and this tool the people of India has lost.
Buddhism is also very skeptical about the phenomenon of hope: “Hope, - according to Buddha, - is just a different face of desire. And desire is still a goat". Padmasambhava puts it this way about hope: “Having freed yourself from hope, fear and all doubts, exercise, letting temporary experiences naturally arise and naturally release. Then all experiences will contribute to progress along the path".
Apparently, Buddhism, believing a threat in fear, and in hope - deception of an unreasonable desire, turns to the belief in rebirth in order to avoid bad karma, and not to the hope of getting merit .
Giving hope only a negative shade also affected the lag in the development of peoples who follow this religious direction.
The French thinker - philosopher and mathematician - Rene Descartes in his views on hope, comparing it with fear, gives them the following definition: “Hope is the desire of the soul to convince itself that the desired will come true. Fear is the inclination of the soul, convincing it that the desire will not come true” .
Below the problem of hope and fear will be considered in more detail, but here we can briefly say the following about them.
In this definition of hope and fear, Descartes points out only certain aspects of these phenomena.
In fact, fear is a warning about a threat, and hope is a perspective that allows you to assess the possibilities of going beyond the threat, if any, or the prospect of getting the best, that is, hope can be a response to a warning, as evidenced by fear, and maybe the expectation of something more pleasant than in the present moment.
Thus, if we relate fear to hope, then fear is a kind of detonator in creating a situation for a creature that is beneficial, at least for survival, and hope allows to translate the warnings given by fear into images that, with their further development, are transformed into objects, contributing to the elimination of the threat.
A more general definition of hope is as follows: hope is a need through the desire for something that is clearly more interesting or necessary than what is present, and this image of a still inaccessible object or phenomenon, if it is possible to transform it into a real object, is capable, as the individual believes, to change his life. however, there are no ways of this transformation at this moment, and one has to wait.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant did not stray too far from the Christian view of the hope in relation to virtue. He believes that the perfect realization of virtue and the happiness corresponding to it are impossible for a person in life - a person can only hope for this, that is, Kant, in essence, considers hope as an illusion in relation to the highest virtue and happiness, and therefore he the basis of hope transfers to beingness of God and the immortality of the soul.
However, as for hope in life, then, unlike Christianity, for which the hope in life is a manifestation of the participation of God in it, contributing to a person's striving for the ideal: for justice, love, goodness, freedom, then hope in a human life, according to Kant, bears a negative connotation, since it moves away from the developed moral principles that Kant elevated to a moral law: "What could I hope for if I do what I am supposed to do?" [17, p. 662].
Thus, Kant showed ambivalence in relation to hope, having noted its positive meaning in a religious context, and its destructive nature in the realities of life associated with morality, without having clarified the origins of hope and not having given it a definition.
The German thinker and writer Friedrich Nietzsche, like the ancient philosophers, also has a purely negative attitude to hope: "... For this, he (Zeus) gave a person hope: it is in fact the worst of evils, because it prolongs human torment" [18, p. 281].
In this view of hope as a deception, Nietzsche follows Plato, having refined the thesis of Plato about the infidelity of hope by believing it to be an unintentional deception, which only "prolongs human torment", thereby having noted one of the properties of hope, but not having given it a definition.
Such an attitude to the phenomenon of hope could not but lead Nietzsche to pessimism, which was expressed, in essence, in the fact that humanity, if it comes in its development to something, then this will be a superman in the form of a half-animal, judging by those characteristics, which Nietzsche gave him.
French philosopher and writer Albert Camus also tried to clarify the meaning of the phenomenon of hope in the world, which, as he believed, is absurd in relation to a person, and this world does not depend on his will [19, p. 152-180]. A person is not able to cognize the meaning of Creation in his short life.
The world does not justify the hopes, which are placed on it, since the spirit and the world are not able to unite [ibid., p. 60, 71]: "... life, if it nourishes hope, it is an incorrigibly vicious life" [20, p. 147]. Hope is nothing more than an illusion, since “absurdity is the opposite of hope” [19, p. 54].
Camus deduces the absurdity of the world from the inability of human thinking to comprehend reality, thereby transferring the palm to sensations. The human mind, according to Camus, can describe reality and no more than that: "Only philosophers professing irony are able to create exciting works" [ibid., P. 131, 136, 157]. Therefore, Camus's considerations boil down to the fact that a person is able for the only thing - to describe the world, which, like himself, will someday disappear along with all the creations of mankind, and in this world one must live not without benefit for oneself, without abandoning the fruits of sensations, maintaining steadfastness and reason in the tests of the absurd world, which do not has a future, and hence hopes due to the absence of continuous existence - salvation in such world is impossible [ibid., p. 153].
Refusing hope in the real world, Camus also considers the hope of a person's afterlife as illusory, which also turns a person's life into the illusion of waiting for life after death, and this means, according to Camus, that a person should seek satisfaction in the present, and then he will cease to seek solace in fruitless hopes for a refuge in the next world and will find freedom in action [ibid., p. 151].
Albert Camus, in essence, in his constructions about the infidelity of hope follows the Stoics, who believed that in a world filled with ignorance, vices, troubles and catastrophes, one should ignore such reality, giving it the meaning, that is currently required, courageously enduring its impact, about which, for example, Seneca said this: “While we fussily wander without a guide, listening to the noise of absurd screams that beckon us to various temptations, life is spent in vain among delusions, and it is short even if we take care of our spiritual development day and night… Our main task should be that we do not follow, like cattle, the leaders of the herd, so that we go not where others are going, but where duty commands ... No one is mistaken to harm himself, but everyone is a cause and a culprit someone else's delusion ... life is happy if it is consistent with its nature. Such life is possible only if, first, a person constantly possesses a sound mind; then, if his spirit is courageous and energetic, noble, enduring and prepared for all circumstances; if he, without falling into anxious suspiciousness, takes care of the satisfaction of physical needs; if he is at all interested in the material aspects of life, not being tempted by any of them; finally, if he knows how to use the gifts of fate, without becoming their slave ... Instead of pleasures, instead of insignificant, fleeting and not only disgusting, but also harmful enjoyments, there comes strong, unshakable and constant joy, peace and harmony of spirit, greatness combined with meekness " [21, p. 47-74].
But, in contrast to the stoic rejection of pleasures, Camus prefers the views of Epicurus, who believed that free time depends primarily on sensations, since life is given in them. Therefore, Epicurus puts pleasure in the foreground as the absence of pain, suffering and anxiety, at the same time eliminating the false opinions that hope brings. [ibid.].
Thus, Camus, in essence, following the Stoics and Epicurus, distance a person himself from the outside world. But it is precisely the outside world given for the development of the personality, and therefore of its consciousness in overcoming difficulties, troubles and her own vices. That is, Camus, perhaps unconsciously, preaches indifference and thereby stagnation in the development of both the individual consciousness of a person and the single consciousness, which represents life, making the body and everything connected with it nothing more than necessary instrument for oneself.
Any development is unthinkable without project activities, the transition to which is impossible without the hope of implementing the plan, even if it is unlikely. Exactly what seems impossible at first, often gives the most interesting and effective result. But the matter is not in the result - hope is always a glimpse in the darkness, and it does not always deceive even after death, since ignorance of the otherworldly does not mean a complete cessation of everything after the death of the body, which is only the departure of consciousness from it.
German philosopher and sociologist Erich Fromm gives hope a purely positive value within the framework of current reality - “when the moment comes for this” , that is, only in the present, believing that hope is the expectation in this present.
He characterizes hope as follows: “Hope is paradoxical. This is not passive waiting and not forcing events that cannot happen in reality. She is like a hidden tiger that only jumps when the moment has come.
This is not tired reformism or pseudo-radical adventurism. To hope means at every moment to be ready for something that has not yet been born, and at the same time not to despair if this does not happen during our lifetime. There is no point in placing hope on what already exists, or on what cannot be. People who have lost hope calm down, staying either comfort or in despair, while those who have strong hope see and carefully cultivate all the signs of a new life, they are ready at any moment to help the birth of something that is ready to be born” [ibid].
That is, Fromm, unlike some of his predecessors (see above), does not equate hope with illusion, believing that hope requires to achieve goals.
In fact, this is far from the case, since hopes are mostly illusory precisely because the probability of their achievement is low due to the lack of visible means of achieving the desired object, and the inaccessibility of ways to achieve the desired does not do them as a goal, but only constitutes an image of the desired, which, of course, attracts to itself, but the need for it is only virtual and is often replaced by other hopes that seem more promising.
Therefore, the reduction of hope to “rational faith”, or “vision of the present, fraught with the future,” which penetrates into the essence of phenomena [ibid.], Is Fromm's pure fantasy, since even intuition is only the outline of the sought-for essence, and not the essence itself.
Thus, Erich Fromm, who in his positivist attitude preaches the positive meaning of hope not as an illusion in the present, exaggerates the positive aspect of hope, since, as he believes, hope is a "vision of the present, fraught with the future," and this "knowledge" of reality consists in the ability to penetrate into the essence of events (rational faith).
Here we can see Fromm's clear one-sidedness in his vision of the phenomenon of hope.
Practice shows the incorrectness of hopes, as, indeed, of any desires, and their changeability, which for the most part are not justified in the same present, one might say, every day, which means, as a rule, their unattainability precisely due to insufficient knowledge of the situation, and just the appearance of a person's usual "wanting" for something.
This refutes Fromm's main idea, which consists in the mysterious "ability" of hope to discern the essence of events. In fact, the verb "to hope" itself means the purely probabilistic nature of this "vision of the essence", since events even in the present are so intertwined and superimposed on each other that it is rather difficult for an ordinary person to understand them, and he can only guess where life will turn because he often does not know what will happen in the next moment.
As for the achievement of goals, which Fromm confuses with hopes, it is not hope that lies at the heart of goal setting. This basis is the dissatisfaction of a person's consciousness with what exists, which first makes him want something else for his own consumption during a more or less long wait, which mostly ends in nothing, but sometimes-after a pause for "collecting" thoughts – a person seeks means to satisfy his own desire, which only in this case turns into a goal, and it is already possible to strive for it using the methods found.
So this desire in anticipation without knowing how to be and what to do to satisfy it, is called hope, through which desire acquires a corresponding object in the form of an image, but it, like a "grape for a fox", is still unattainable.
Along with that, the object of hope, contrary to Fromm's assertion, maybe not only the present, but also the past and the future, however, as a rule, hopes are associated with the future because they is provoked on it by the dissatisfaction of the consciousness of a person who wants better than he has: fewer threats and dangers, more delicious food, a variety of pleasures, good news, more comfortable housing, interesting and well-paid work, true love and sincere respect for oneself, more external freedom to satisfy one's desires, which also requires a lot of money, as well, if possible, more space for creativity.
And from such dissatisfaction of consciousness a person cannot go anywhere. It is the starting point of all the needs of any living being, including a person, and these needs in the form of images appear in the human mind as hopes, which can then turn into goals if the means of achieving the desired objects will be attached to them.
If, as Fromm believes, the objects of hope are only in the current reality, thereby, in particular, he automatically moves away from the problem of death, which, due to ignorance of the aftereffect of this phenomenon, is saved no by the “state of beingness”, but is saved by the hope for life after death, which is not justified by anything, but hope does not have to justify itself and everything else. After all, illusory hopes are not only negative, but they also tend to comfort, since nothing else is available.
American philosopher Richard Rorty, an adherent of relativistic pragmatism, examines the phenomenon of hope from the point of view of its correspondence to its benefit, believing that if a person is inside an object, for example, within the framework of social relations - in socium, then he primarily deals with texts, conversation. Cognition of the world is limited by his position and finding himself in a certain context of history, therefore he is not able to understand the true nature of reality, and also cannot "look" outside, yes, he does not need all this, because, turning to the past, he can create images of the future in the form of social hopes, transforming desires into expectations for the best, which cannot be definitively determined due to the factor of random changes, but, nevertheless, which lead to a creative searching for something new, inspiring optimism and contributing to the desire for a conflict-free existence.
That is, Rorty believes that people can always agree due to some community of social hopes: “The work that was supposed to be done by proving the general nature of aa person should be done especially by novels and ethnography, which make those, who do not speak our language, to be sensitive to pain. Solidarity should be constructed from small pieces, it does not wait to be found in the form of a primordial language, which we all immediately recognize as soon as we hear it” [23. Part 2, chapter 4].
Rorty's “bazaar” approach to the phenomenon of hope borders on absurdity, since it made hope the main factor in improving the state of society on the precarious basis of conformity.
First, hope is just the expectation of something more favorable, not guaranteeing anything, and more often than not leading to another stupidity or even catastrophe because it does not have a solid foundation. which Rorty yet more restricts only to literature and conversation, denying the search for truth as a factor influencing the most effective approach to changing reality on an experimental and probative rather than "conversational" basis. What kind of improvement in the situation in society, and even more so about social harmony in this case, can we talk about?
Secondly, progress is based not on “bare” hope, but on conversion it into a goal, which is because real ways and ways of achieving a goal are already visible, as a result of which the probability of achieving the goal increases significantly, while only one hope plunges socium into the sphere of action of randomness, reducing it to a herd existence.
Thirdly, harmony in socium is unattainable, despite all the hopes for it, due to the dual nature of a person, whose “wild” (natural, or purely egocentric) consciousness will never reconcile with the calls of cultural self-consciousness eness for equality and fraternity destroying any attempts to bring society to harmony, which by itself, that is, in the struggle between both forms of consciousness, ensures a change in consciousness itself.
Hope is actually one of the tools for moving towards a new one, not allowing a person to rest on what he has achieved along with fear, interest, imagination, freedom on the basis of dissatisfaction of consciousness with himself and own environment.
2, Identifying the source and meaning of the phenomenon of hope.
Until now, the phenomenon of hope has been largely unexplored, probably because it seems obvious in itself, although a closer look reveals a variety of different and often contradictory sides to this phenomenon.
In addition, hope is spoken of only in applying it to a person, without bothering to gain an understanding that in each person there exist and interact with each other the oldest natural consciousness and self-consciousness, at this the last exists only at a person, self-consciousness is based mainly on a culture of behavior, and not on following only natural laws.
In ф person the peculiarities of natural consciousness manifest themselves, which is the only form of consciousness that is inherent in animals. Therefore, some characteristic features of the natural consciousness become the basis of the higher consciousness of a person.
In other words, if in animals they manifest themselves in an instinctive-reflex form, then a person can use them completely consciously, but, of course, in an advanced version.
Therefore, it makes sense to first see if animals or even amphibians have a feature of consciousness that resembles human hope.
For this, first of all, it should be noted that any hope is initially an expectation of something or someone.
And expectation itself characterizes any living being, which certainly needs a pause before performing any action, since it is necessary to mentally and physically prepare for the action, whether it be a jump or a solution to a problem.
Thus, it becomes clear that expectation, or a pause before an action is not only a product of experience, but it is embedded in the genetic program of any living being, and experience only details the expectation for a living being.
In particular, the predator is waiting for the right moment to attack, antelopes stray into a flock, placing their offspring in its middle, waiting every moment for an attack, and such an advanced and quick-witted creature, like a domestic dog, waits at the doorstep of the master's handouts in the form of a tastier piece. And this "hope" of the dog is sometimes justified.
Surprisingly, this canine behavior strongly resembles the manners of individual people, for example, beggars on the church porch, who are also waiting for handouts for some unknown reason.
That is, the experience and genetic program of, for example, animals are based on the use of randomness, which are systematized through the realization of a system of trial and error to increase the efficiency of preparation for the subsequent action in the corresponding pause.
Generally speaking, randomness, gravitating more towards chaos, is not able to be a reliable support for the structural order, violating it all the time. Therefore, giving continuous changes to the living environment, it also contributes to the same continuous destruction of the emerging order, forcing living beings to completely obey themselves, especially without thinking, the basis of which is the reflex-instinctive mechanism of action - the same for all living beings, so that with they did not happen.
However, Creation requires both destruction and more or less successful creation, which can satisfy consciousness, giving an impetus to its development by moving away from the meaninglessness of existence only at the level of consumption of sensations.
Thus, in Creation, the most successful in terms of acquiring meanings in combining them with sensations is only what can figure out how destroy or create more effectively, which is facilitated by not random procedures and not some order, the indispensable condition of which is stability, but only creativity and initiative, always leading to a relatively rapid achievement of the expected or unexpected result, but harm, benefit or even a small meaning of which can only be understood by a being with these properties, that is, a being,, who is self-aware.
Therefore, it is most effective to create and destroy, except for a subject possessing both consciousness at the level of sensations and self-consciousness, no one is capable, and it means that it is impossible for both a single consciousness and individual consciousness to do without this subject as the most effective tool for its own development and consumption of different life collisions.
It turns out that, on the one hand, for a person who is at the same time an animal, the phenomenon of expectation as an instinctive preparation for action is embedded in his natural consciousness, and on the other hand, for a person a conscious expectation is nothing more than the desire to receive that or another gift from life for the work and hardships of life, and this is the expectation of a gift in the form of this or that image, that is, - the hope on finding it in reality, cannot but manifest itself in his self-consciousness, since it first presents a person with this or that opportunity, which in the future can turn into reality if a person turns out to be able to plan his actions in a targeted way, that is, counting on a concrete result through the use of certain methods of achieving it.
Thus, in contrast to an animal, a person, thanks to his self-awareness, is capable of a target order of actions, despite the initially spontaneous nature of desires and expectations, since there is no exact knowledge for these expectations.
However, since initially, in the manifestation of hope at a person is laid down a randomness in the form of a spontaneous expectation of something better or more pleasant - without exact knowledge of the future and the ways to achieve it, then a person is able to find in his consciousness only the image of the desired, which promises something useful or necessary, but so far this desirable is not available due to its unplanned nature and incomplete certainty, however, it is possible to achieve if, while waiting do not sit idly, but try to concretize the still unsteady image of the desired in order to understand what should be done to transfer from the expectation to action, or, faced with a different case, change one hope for another, which may seem more promising.
Thus, the instinctive expectation of a threat or the preparation of an attack, characteristic of the natural consciousness, in man is combined with a more or less humble desire to obtain some specific compensation with appropriate satisfaction for work and suffering in the foreseeable future, but preferably faster.
Since both of these forms of consciousness interact with each other, as a rule, with the dominance of one of them, then the object of hope can be both a gross desire for certain bodily pleasures that are still inaccessible, and a desire for creative success, that is, to a greater or lesser extent, respectively grossly physical or mental-cultural.
This conscious expectation of receiving not only hardships from life, but also something most interesting or useful, or necessary, can be qualified as more or less justified hope not in the afterlife, but still at this world.
However, like everything else, this or that life opportunity can degenerate into its opposite in the conscious actions of a person, which are often based on erroneous postulates and no well-thought-out actions.
In this respect, hope is a phantom, when a person hopes, as he believes, for the best, completely unfounded or at random.
For example, he begins to steal, hoping to get rich, but statistics say that almost all thieves, except, of course, representatives of the ruling elite, sooner or later end up in jail.
Nevertheless, even unfounded hope has the positive property that it adds optimism when committing generally reckless acts, one of which, in particular, is the struggle for justice with power structures armed to the teeth. This struggle excites society, not allowing it to freeze and rot in stagnation, although justice, which in fact is different for everyone, cannot be achieved, and revolutionaries perish or become retrogrades.
Hope itself reflects that peculiarity of self-consciousness, the dissatisfaction of which is not able to immediately transform into a goal, since a person never succeeds in planning his actions initially ideally exactly. The fact is that the amount of information is rarely sufficient and there can be strong and unexpected opposition to any action, and it is most often possible to understand the intricacies of events only by cutting the "Gordian knot" or, for example, by the typical Chinese policy of waiting, when everything will fall into place, and it will be possible to push back or destroy opponents, weakened in battles among themselves.
Therefore, hope is a necessary intermediate link between the dissatisfaction of self-consciousness and the goal. In this link, dissatisfaction takes on the meaning and form of a need during a certain pause between actions by creating an image of the need, but not having approaches to it.
Hope is a personal asset of self-consciousness, and not a weakened type of faith, the acquisition of which means the transfer of self-confidence, in particular, to the confident actions of a certain outsider omnipotent and omniscient supreme being, while the hope is that even during life you can find some desired fruits, and not just diseases and troubles. The only question is how justified these hopes are.
Sufficient certainty of these desired fruits distinguishes hope from fantasies and dreams, which, as a rule, are far from the realities of life, and the most typical example of such fantasies is Manilovism (see "Dead Souls" by N. V. Gogol).
And an example of a quite definite hope can be the considerations of the young Vladimir Ulyanov, later known as Lenin.
At first, he simply hoped to make all other people, at least satisfied with life in the world without exploitation of a person by a person, without knowing specific ways to achieve such a result.
But over time, he found in Marxism, as it seemed to him, effective methods of achieving harmony in society by destroying all kinds of exploitation of working people, and along the way exploiters. By doing so, he transformed hope for global harmony into a goal.
True, this goal was not achieved both because of the unsuitability of the means, and because of its utopianism, which, in turn, demonstrates the problematic nature of any goal, if it is brought closer to desire, in which what seems reasonable, achievable and even necessary can be ordinary phantom.
From this it can be seen that hope and goal stand side by side, but in hope there is no way to achieve the desired and it consists only in waiting for it, and the goal involves the use of certain methods that allow organizing the aspiration towards an established need, that, nevertheless, does not guarantee the achievement of the goal.
That is, hope can turn into a goal if you can find adequate ways to achieve the desired or necessary. And vice versa, if the methods of achieving the goal turn out to be ineffective, then it is either lost or turns into fruitless hope, which, nevertheless, can fool your head for a long time, because desires, even stupid ones, are ineradicable.
Thus, no hopes are justified without converting them into goals, that is, hopes in themselves are not by the challenge of a happy future - they do not directly create favorable circumstances, but give a perspective, sometimes, however, false, however in any case hope can comfort. or encourage, which often is life-saving.
However, the weakness of hope lies in the fact that it does not solve incoming problems and is not able by itself to respond to current challenges, since hope is, as a rule, the desire to receive recompense in the future for the hardships of life, but not a solution to current problems.
Among other things, the fragility of hope for success is emphasized, for example, by the fact that even the presence of such solid base as certain abilities or talents does not at all guarantee success in life, which, as a rule, is understood as the acquisition of popularity, wealth, fame, power, etc., without sufficient education, adequate identification of the areas of activity corresponding to the abilities, strong will, connections with the powers that be and a successful combination of circumstances.
Since the expectation-pause is embedded in the gene program of each living creature, then its conscious form - hope - can never disappear anywhere during life, and even dying, every person, including an atheist, unless, of course, he is the last blockhead or simply abnormal, counts on life unknown to him in the future.
In particular, the founder of cosmonautics K.E. Tsiolkovsky, hoped, that the atoms that make up his body, in accordance with the theory of probability, can gather in the same combination after a certain number of years, albeit unimaginable, which will pass for him unnoticed outside of time, and he will again appear after myriads of years in some kind of beingness as if nothing had happened.
Each religious confession lures into its bosom individuals precisely by instilling in them hope for a future life, and many cannot avoid this temptation.
True, it happens that false hopes lead to despair, but the continuing life with its possibilities and not always with joyless events again brings up hope for the best, and so on up to death itself.
Otherwise, - if hopes disappear, then prospects also disappear: a person first becomes indifferent to everything, thereby dropping out of socium as its initiative unit, and then his life ends either with a quiet death or a mental disorder, turning him into a living corpse, since his self-consciousness has already lost the stimulus for development, and the animal (natural) consciousness that remains with him is not capable of turning a person back into a prosperous animal overnight, and he himself, thanks to the remnants of self-consciousness, does not desire this transformation.
Hope differs from many phenomena of human consciousness in its ambiguity.
On the one hand, for every person, hope is a humble and rather shaky desire in the form of a forced expectation of only the possible from a foggy future, but preferably during life, more or less specific deserved reward for work and suffering, which is able to console or encourage a person, regardless of whether his expectations will come true or not.
On the other hand, hope in one extreme is an attempt to find a real way out of a situation in the present, which seems hopeless, in order not to fall into apathy or despair.
In contrast to this extreme, hope may be nothing more than an illusion based on the events of the past, but, nevertheless, its value is that it leads a person away from despair in a situation with which he cannot cope, and the person is "happy to be deceived".
Hope remains the last attribute of the consciousness of the dying person, who, having said goodbye to his life, still hopes for its continuation in an unknown form after the death of the body.
Hope is like an interest, the determination of the content of which in its achievement means a transition to another interesting, i.e. as and for the interesting, one hope is replaced by another, seemingly more promising, but, unlike the interesting, without achieving the previous one.
It can be said that hope is a ray of light from the past through the sliding, doubtful and controversial present to the future, illuminating the as yet inaccessible desired.
Hope, being essentially a desire, and to the full extent not relating to knowledge, cannot be accurately calculated, as a result of which it is not able to be a reliable support and a guarantee of receiving what is desired, but it, nevertheless, remains the only one when everything else turns into nothing, and that is why it is so named in the Russian transcription.
Not entirely reasonable hope, since it is for the most part a "raised" case, and not an accurate calculation, still allows us to flounder in the sea of events instead of drowning in it.
Hope is a stripped down liberty - but still liberty - associated with the dissatisfaction of consciousness with oneself, contributing to the search for the best, but not possessing knowledge of methods of changing reality to achieve the desired, created in the imagination.
Losing hope, a person loses liberty, that is, the independence of consciousness, turning into a living corpse - a zombie with whom you can do whatever you want.
Summarizing, we can say that hope consists in an attempt to consciously construct and keep in one's own consciousness the image of an object or event, the arrival of which from the future to the present is most desirable, on the basis of dissatisfaction with the realities of the present, in order to escape from the everyday routine or something unpleasant for interesting or beautiful, or simply necessary, but as yet absent.
However, the desired and already somehow determined image is not capable of transforming itself into an achievable goal, since the individual does not yet see ways to turn it into a real object for oneself, or under the current conditions this transformation is simply impossible, - for example, the plane loses control and one has to hope only in some kind of life beyond the grave.
Therefore, hope is, in fact, a forced state of unabated expectation - a kind of ambush - already found in the form of a more or less distinct image of the desired interesting or beautiful, or at least necessary, in which the need for consciousness manifests itself without knowing the ways to achieve it.
In some cases, for example, for the sake of survival, this state comes mainly from natural consciousness, and in ordinary life, the hope that comes from self-consciousness, filled not only with the positive, but also with prejudices, ignorance and all sorts of nonsense, can cheapen itself for unfounded expectations of a ministerial post or rich bride, who come from similar foolishness of self-consciousness.
Nevertheless, hope, although devoid of knowledge and will, that does not allow a person to intensify his actions, lays the foundation for a departure from the miserable and unfaithful present to a better future, and thereby through hope is realized the progress of the individual in the development of its consciousness, not allowing it to drown in indifference or despair.
Thus, hope is not a goal, not a challenge, not a forecast, not a belief, not a dream, not the creation of favorable conditions for oneself, not some thoughtful action, but the need through the desire for something that is clearly more interesting or necessary, and this image of a still inaccessible object or phenomenon, if it is possible to transform it into an attainable goal, is capable, as the individual believes , to change his life, however, the ways of this transformation are not found at this moment and we have to wait.
Therefore, if ways to get to the desired or necessary can be found, then hope becomes a goal to which you can already strive for known, roundabout, experimental or unexplored ways, for example, with the help of intuition. The latter is expressed in creative activity.
Summing up, we note that the hope within the self-consciousness of each person occupies a separate niche, contributing to the manifestation of the need for that interesting, which is still unattainable, but possible, thereby building a bridge between the future and the present.
Therefore, the role of hope is not reduced to organizing the striving for the interesting, but to creating a perspective, more precisely, an image of this interesting or necessary, as well as to encouragement or consolation of a person in the created forced pause between actions, who realizes, that the interesting and the beautiful exist and can be achieved without letting a person fall into apathy or despair even in front of death, since promises interesting things beyond the grave, expanding his freedom beyond the bounds of life. It is this property that allows, in particular, Christianity to recognize hope as one of the virtues, along with faith, mercy and love.
With the growth of self-consciousness and, thus, the increase in the self-sufficiency of civilization, the effect of natural factors becomes weaker and weaker, which means that they really manifest themselves as necessary external, but not fundamental for human consciousness.
Consequently, the intensive development of communities of living beings-previously barely noticeable, and the main contribution to which was made by mutations (random changes in the genome) - begins only with the appearance of self-consciousness in them with its distance in large measure from randomness.
But self-consciousness is not capable of becoming self-sufficient for a person, since all the conditions for existence in the form of living are provided by natural consciousness.
Therefore, self-consciousness is forced to interact with natural consciousness in a person and this interaction is expressed, as a rule, in their incessant opposition to each other, since they mostly have opposite aspirations - the latter is responsible for survival organism in the environment, and the former - for social and cultural development of an individual.
So in every person constantly compete in the sphere of desires: the expectation of the best food, comfort, a pleasant female (male), dominance in their own environment, coming from natural consciousness, and the hope for a life without special worries and distress in successful progress along the steps of life, cognition, love and happiness as a property of self-consciousness.
Both of these hypostases of consciousness most often oppose, but at critical moments, for example, in the struggle for survival, they unite, and a person forgets about everything else, trying to find a way out of a situation that threatens death during some pause, and in a harmless situation he can think about a career, a profitable marriage, fame, creative luck, a house in Cannes, etc.
3. Fear and hope are two sides of the same coin.
Usually, hope is opposed to fear, since hope in difficult circumstances instills optimism, and fear, on the contrary, prophesies a threat, illness or death.
In part, of course, this is true, but, in essence, hope and fear are sides of the same coin, since fear is a warning, and hope is a perspective that allows one to assess the possibilities of going beyond the threat.
Indeed, a lot of subjects or situations that cause or giving birth to fear, such as the opponent’s hatred, diseases, death, cannot be eliminated, replaced, or circumvented, but it is possible to try to debar oneself somewhat from them, for example, to stop thinking about them, although the very threat, the precursor of which is fear, does not disappear anywhere from this.
It is hope that allows you to get away from such objects or situations, leaving at least solace.
Fear as a sensation for all living beings in reality is a reaction to a actual impending threat to a habitual existence, expressed initially in the appearance of alertness, and then the appearance of anxiety, which for warm-blooded creatures, in the case of turning of the danger into a real attack, is transformed first into fear, and then into the strongest fright (horror), creating the corresponding adrenaline release into blood that gives, for example, to antelopes the highest speed of rescue from a predator, and to a predator - aggressiveness in attack on the expected prey or rage in battle with the rival, acting thereby at instinctively-hormonal level.
Thus, fear is a kind of detonator in creating for the creature a situation, that is beneficial for survival, that is, the status of maintaining the sensations entering the body, without which - and this feels every creature up to the amoeba - comes a void, that already animals know about, because for them it happens in a dream or during fainting.
And in this regard, no living creature is able to become fearless, just as it cannot exclude pain from its life, which indicates the degree of damage to a particular organ.
Fear indicates the reluctance of any creature to lose sensations, a significant part of which is obviously pleasant, and this reluctance affirms life, although not a single living creature, except a person, does not grasp own existence in the world, that is, it does not understand that this existence in the framework of the current time is ended with death.
Hence the difference in the nature of fear between animals and humans.
Animal fear coincides with the nature of fear in the natural (animal) part of a person’s consciousness, which, like consciousness of any primate, responds to real danger, but fear, which manifests in that part of consciousness that makes a person aware of himself in the environment, making him no longer not only a simple dynamic component of this environment, but also partly its owner and conscious transformer for its own benefit, has a different character, directly determined by relations in society, which in turn is based on the relationship between the natural (animal) and self-conscious components of human consciousness, since self-consciousness is inherent only to a person and his communities, and it should influence in some way on the natural part of consciousness and vice versa, especially since they act together in the human brain, and are inseparable in this regard.
Therefore, for self-consciousness, since thanks to it a person is able to imagine, design and fantasize, may occur and the fictitious dangers, and respectively fear, associated with the existence of a person not in conditions of the wild nature, but in conditions of socium, are of a different character compared to the natural fear.
Self-consciousness gives a person and his communities the ability to transform certain chaos, more precisely, the dominance of randomness in development, which is the reason for its slowness, into accelerated development, which is caused by a more ordered, that is, purposeful policy of acquiring benefits both by a person and his communities in their existence.
Hope, as one of the most important components of self-awareness, allows you to translate the warnings given by fear, especially in socium, into images that, with their further development, can be transformed into objects that eliminate threats.
For instance, the fear of the new, combined with the weakness of consciousness, paradoxically as it may be, allows you to engage the average person (philistine) in move towards the unknown, if this move promises him even more comfort and stability, even if it is deceiving. Without this, popular unrest would have been impossible, as well as, in fact, progress itself.
Thus, fear is a warning about a threat, and hope is a perspective that allows to assess the possibilities of going beyond the threat, if any, or the prospect of getting the best, that is, hope can be a feedback response to a warning, as evidenced by fear, and hope can be also the expectation of something more pleasant and, therefore, more desirable than what is.
4. Hope as a harbinger of liberty through imagination.
Liberty for a person arises not in inaction, but in setting goals, developing ways to achieve them and the transition to action according to the developed plan, but any goal arises first as an opportunity, and if this opportunity promises something better or other necessary, then this opportunity manifests itself initially in the form of an image of a desired object or phenomenon, which a person hopes to achieve in the future, since he does not yet see ways to approach what is sought.
This kind of opportunity, or hope, concretized in the image of the desired, provides a person with the prospect of liberation from the hateful present by further transforming hopes into goals that allow changing the ephemeral freedom of hope for freedom in the realization of goals, which makes a person more and more independent from the environment and gives him the ability to expand own activity to an increasing number of areas.
The figurative character of hope, which concentrates mainly on the imagination of the desired need, plays the role of an initial reflection in consciousness (brain) of information from the senses, combined with data from memory into images of the supposed future.
That is, a person thanks to information, perceived by him as the possibility of changing the situation to a favorable one for himself, depending on the level of his ingenuity, forms the image of a desired or necessary, as he believes, an object for improving life, creating for himself the prospect of the future, which can significantly affect the effectiveness of his actions to change himself and own surrounding.
The figurativeness of hope also creates the basis for the manifestation of creative thinking, since creativity consists in the selection of unusual images, which, at the same time, can, with some refinement, solve the problem, which, with a lack of data, cannot be provided by analytical research methods.
Unusual images reflect initially something unstable, unforeseen, unfamiliar, which creates a state of helplessness. However, one can try to translate them into a stable and effective combination in line with the new rules that bind what was previously assumed to be incompatible, which open up a new scale and direction of not images, but specific solutions, where its role should play a thought. Here the images themselves can suggest a way out to a completely adequate new solution, which is often associated with intuition.
Thus, hope is one of the foundations of a person's self-awareness, making it possible for a person to be creative as a result of his departure from adaptive existence to a conscious transformation of the environment for his own purposes, the most effective ways of this transformation can be only the creative, allowing to solve current and emerging problems in a new way, and also with less effort and greater benefit.
The greatest contribution to the creative process of changing reality and the person himself, and therefore his consciousness, contributes precisely the imagination, with which hope is directly connected, as it allows to approach the new and unknown in its simplest and most understandable form without using complex formulas and confusing analytics.
It is hope, which is impossible without imagination, that is able to imagine the future not in the form of “dense” reality (beingness), but in the form of “subtle” matter - virtual reality - in a number of images based on knowledge of past events.
If to imagine liberty as a state of dissatisfaction of consciousness with oneself, which is transformed into the development of ways of one's own change by influencing existing beingness, taking into account its opposition, then the basis of this dissatisfaction of consciousness, its aspirations for the new is incessant information flows that permeate the entire being of a person, which he can interpret, possessing self-awareness, in various ways, to the extent of their understanding. Thereby, each person inevitably makes all the time hesitation from habit to destruction of order, liberation from it. Having established one thing and joining it, sooner or later he begins to feel weary about it and decides to change the order, no matter how much his outward conservative nature resists by this.
As a result of the emergence of a new one additional connections arise, the cognitive surrounding expands, which means a continuous increase of information flows to which each person is forced to apply.
In other words, liberty is a constant striving for liberation from one for the sake of creating another, not necessarily better, but different, and it is precisely hope that gives a person such opportunity, drawing him an image of the desired, which, if it is realized in the future through the goal, is replaced in a different image, setting the course to development in its figurative perspective of the future.
If the conditions of existence do not allow a person to completely dominate the circumstances, then no one and nothing prevents him from striving for this, which is not a little promoted by hope: approaching the ideal is also, in a certain sense, the acquisition of greater liberty.
Nevertheless, the hope, the manifestation of which comes from the dissatisfaction of a person's self-consciousness with oneself and his environment, although it is one of the manifestations of liberty, does not have knowledge of ways to change reality to achieve the desired, what is its limitation compared to a more advanced manifestation of liberty - the goal.
That is, hope is liberty, limited by ignorance of ways to achieve the desired.
5. Hope as an undeveloped form of the interesting.
It is also curiously to compare hope with interest and the interesting, since there is a lot in common between them and, most importantly, hope and interest are realized through desire, although behind the desire is always a person's dissatisfaction with himself and others in his attempt to find the best or at least to be saved.
That is, behind the hope, as well as behind the interest, there is always dissatisfaction with the present, and the interesting is the product of interest.
The accumulating dissatisfaction with oneself in the surrounding everyday monotony, sooner or later pushes the human consciousness to search for something other than the existing one, which is usually denoted by the term “interesting” (unusual, provocative, mysterious, incredible, frightening, exciting, disturbing, surprising, in one word - something other) as in simple, everyday life style, and complex relationships between people, as well as in engineering and art.
Therefore, a person can be interested in anything, if only it differed in novelty for him, and extreme expression of the interested party is the gaper with an open mouth.
Satisfaction is sought in interesting, but it is never definitively because, having stopped on one, you can lose the rest, which cannot be allowed, otherwise there is no new satisfaction in the other interesting, and even the open interesting itself cannot bring full satisfaction owing to a discrepancy of it to an initial image attracting to itself.
Thus, the interest is being caused by the dissatisfaction of the person with himself in the possibility of embracing the immense, resulting in “snatching” from this endless list of the desired form (an image) in order to settle in it, but the found interesting is being either not given in its entirety, like a dance with someone else's wife does not translate it into yours, or it eludes beyond the horizon, like the setting sun into the abyss of the sea, or it turns into ashes after an instant of pleasure, like an expensive Cuban cigar, either it makes the dream object — the girlfriend’s favorite — a cantankerous housewife, either it takes the form of so much desired power, which turns out to be ordinary beastliness, or it captures you by rustling of banknotes, on which, it turns out, is impossible to buy really the most expensive and valuable, or it make you crush everything around for the sake the blossoming tomorrow, but it does not come in any way.
In other words, interest does not attract finally to something or someone, since the discovered interesting does not completely coincide with the original image because of its vagueness, mutability and instability, not giving the feeling of receiving what was truly desired due to its limitation and deceptive of what was found.
Now we note that the notion of the interest in translation from Latin (interest) means “to have value, to participate”.
This juxtaposition of interest and hope indicates that hope is similar to interest in the sense that the comprehension of one interesting means a transition to another interesting, which is still unknown and therefore may be more attractive.
Likewise, the hope for someone or for something, upon careful consideration of what is desired, can pass to another object that seems more promising. This is how girls try to find a husband.
However, the difference between hope and interest is that if interest in a certain object disappears due to its achievement, getting used to it and understanding it, just as a wife loses her attractiveness for her husband in comparison with still unfamiliar ladies, then an subject of hope remains for a person is still clearly unattainable, and detailed consideration and use of it is impossible, since it has only a figurative and rather unsteady form.
Otherwise, hope would turn into a goal, the achievement of which can be planned one way or another with a high probability by some means. Therefore, to the one who hopes often has to choose at random “which way to run,” if, of course, there is such a choice. In addition, one hope may be replaced by another - seemingly more promising, or it may remain so throughout human life.
Hope, nevertheless, is similar to interest in the fact that not any object is chosen for consideration, but one that seems new, the most useful, pleasant, unusual and incapable of causing grief, that is, one that seems more interesting.
But, alas, if the interest lies in the real attraction by a person to himself of an unusual, new, that is, more interesting in comparison with what is available, and a person often does not experience problems with the achievement of something interesting after a while in one way or another, which turns into a goal for this time, then hope is limited only to a hunchin the forced expectation of a chance to get out of the situation or to clarify it.
More details about interest and interesting things are said in my article "Why and due to what are manifested the interest and interesting?" [24. Part 1, §4].
Thus, hope does nothing more than contribute to the manifestation of the need for something interesting or necessary, which is still unattainable, but possible, thereby laying a bridge between the future and the present.
Hope cannot organize the aspiration for an object of interest to a person, it is just a desire for it, but hope can encourage or comfort a person in the created pause between actions, who realizes, that the interesting and the beautiful exist and, in principle, it can be achieved, thereby preventing a person from falling into apathy or despair even n front of death, because hope promises the interesting also beyond the grave.
6. Hope for the eternal life of consciousness in alive.
The positive meaning of hope, it seems, can be questioned, because hope often deceives, and you can be at a broken trough, if you trust it.
For example, hoping for a refund of the loan taken, but losing your job, you can become desperate because of the apparent hopelessness of the situation. However, it is the same hope that helps to get out of this situation, because there is always hope to find a job in another city or even in another country and gradually repay the debt.
In other words, hope, of course, can deceive if the individual is not too smart, but it can also cheer him up, providing new opportunities that are always available.
Take the most extreme case as an example.
A person dies as a consequence of a fatal wound. What can he hope for? It seems that apart from despair and horror, he is not capable of experiencing anything?
However, as pain has a threshold, so horror disappears if a person remembers that the life of the body is not controlled by him, but by consciousness, which was previously called the soul, and consciousness is indestructible, since the purpose of beingness, in which we all find ourselves, is the development of consciousness as in its individual expression, and in a single one. It is the image of eternal consciousness that will always comfort any person at the end of his life path.
With regard to this extreme case, especially since any person is not eternal, it makes sense to briefly outline one of the possible ways of interaction between beingness and the otherworldly, presenting this otherworldly in the form of a probabilistic model of the following type.
Based on the analogy of the actions of any living creature with a television set, as well as using the information model of Creation with a holographic “laying” between beingness and an infinity out of time, stated in the work "New - paradoxical - representation of the picture of Creation" [24. Part 2, §4], we can also try to find out what happens to consciousness after the collapse of its physical carrier-body using the method of exclusion.
Since only living creatures can, while receiving and processing impulse packets of information, form both a part of themselves and space, and the moving objects in time from the passive, so far as consciousness after the death of the carrier-body loses this opportunity, falling out thereby from the current time.
Being a particle of a holographic projection of an infinity out of time, “disconnected” on its part from the hologram during the life of the carrier-body, more precisely, having only one-sided connection with a single consciousness of this holographic projection on the part of the latter, each individual consciousness functions thanks to the body-carrier according to the corresponding program practically automatically under the control of a single consciousness, except for a person, who, thanks to self-consciousness, has the maximum degree of liberty in his actions. Losing own body, each individual consciousness "reunites" with the hologram, more precisely, it "enters" in the frameworks of the hologram and as its part and as whole (the entire holographic projection of an infinity out of time).
In this particle (individual consciousness), which is a kind of frozen and along with that pulsating ultra-high-frequency clump of infinite information, a record of the life that has just passed is saved, by joining to infinite series of all past lives in one or another change. Nevertheless, due to the absence of current time in the hologram, the sequence of an infinite series of past lives is lost, but there remain the accumulated changes that the individual consciousness within the hologram can, in our understanding, surveying, but no more, since there is no past, present, or future in an infinity out of time, and there is no possibility to act.
The inability to perceive and process information in the “immobility” of an endless hologram forces each individual consciousness in the hologram to start searching for new changes, besides the acquired ones, and they can be found only in time, that is, in beingness, having forgotten about previous lives in it for a new development (consumption of information) in alive.
The connection between the holographic projection of an infinity out of time and beingness with finite objects in time is similar to the ratio of egg and hen, which are not able to manifest without each other: one gives the program, the other - the ability to develop on its basis in the course of current events occurring with finite creatures, that is, in time.
Actually, life is revealed only when consciousness is combined with a certain organic material. In this alliance, communication is being made between the embryo (the protein carrier of the program) and a hologram, the representative of which is each individual consciousness.
The hologram also ensures the functioning of the informational “bridge” between an infinity out of time and each individual consciousness in the programmed organics. Along with that, the body with the sensors in it and the information processing centers is the basis for the process of selecting and processing incoming information through this information channel.
So, even if a cell with a genome is assembled perfectly, it will never revive without consciousness entering into it, which is nothing more than a particle of a single consciousness of a hologram, never losing tie with it, and therefore with an infinity out of time, creating thereby an appropriate information "bridge", without which can be no any life.
Along with that, if each individual consciousness is, both an independent particle of a single consciousness of a hologram and it is the entire hologram with all its resources, then the body is a carrier of consciousness for the manifestation of these resources in time, which is being formed by each living being.
As a result, each individual consciousness with the help of a single consciousness finds a program corresponding to its level of development and desired changes in one or another embryo, and begins life first in search of a renewed oneself with varying degrees of success, but with the inevitable finds, that one way or another are being discovered on the endless path of consciousness.
Thus, consciousness does not travel after the death of the body along some nooks and crannies of the otherworldly, which is impossible, since time (current reality) absents there, the formation of which begins with the sense organs.
Therefore, every individual consciousness of any being is forced to return to the germ of a new life, finding oneself again in it in other body by updated, but without memory of a past life.
This return without memory of past lives is not equivalent to arriving from nothingness, because a hologram (otherworldly) is by no means nothingness (death) in its pure form, but an ultra-high-frequency formation with a kind of time in the form of discontinuities of infinity, in which, however, there are no events.
By reuniting with it, each individual consciousness gains the access to any of its past lives and the access to all the secrets of beingness only for human consciousness, that it can comprehend at its own level. In this case, the human consciousness can assess its achievements in past lives, and accordingly choose something new for future life, quite consciously "placed" oneself in the beginning of the new life on one or the other habitable planet, in the required stage of the current reality. It could be a stage before the emergence of civilization, or any of the centuries of civilization.
Each individual human consciousness takes its decision on further advancement in beingness in the borderline state of the transition from life to death on the basis of a block of information concentrated in a holographic projection of an infinity out of time, accessible for its understanding.
This borderline state is a process of the gradual separation of consciousness from the body, which loses its ability to function in the normal mode of forming the own time not right away. In this state, the human consciousness has not yet completely left the body, but has already reunited practically with the hologram, thereby obtained a direct connection with it for its part and the corresponding access to all databases of the hologram.
In other words, this borderline state between life and death does not last long, but its time, even second - while the body is still alive - is enough for consciousness to take advantage of the resources of the hologram that it already has access to: consciousness can be acquainted the information from the databases of the hologram, which it recognizes for solving current problems, and draws up a program accordingly for the next life cycle to continue their own development as the living.
As soon as the death of the body comes, that is, its final disintegration, consciousness finds itself in the current reality as if it was not leaving this reality, in a new body, more precisely, its germ, since this individual consciousness has the responsibility not only of its own development, but also of the development of a single consciousness, as well as the retention of Creation in a stable state of eternal change, and all this is provided by nothing more than events that can happen to consciousness only in time, or in beingness, which got the title "beingness" exactly from the expression: "to be in deed".
is, individual consciousness is not "delayed" in the hologram, although it is a particle of it, because it is always "present" in it. Moreover, each individual consciousness is not only a particle of the hologram, but it oneself is also the single consciousness of the hologram, however this consciousness can manifest itself only in time, or in beingness. Therefore, consciousness after the death of the organism immediately ends up in a new body for a new life.
Similar model of existence of alive in Creation or other models offered by various religious confessions provide the last hope for a person, and this, in any case, cannot but comfort him, but nothing more.
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