On the adequate sides of N.F. Fedorovs idea of the universal return to life of the dead

/ , / On the adequate sides of N.F. Fedorovs idea of the universal return to life of the dead
28 2024   00:05
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The initial idea of total cosmos exploration, which is currently being tried to implement, comes from the theory of the Russian thinker N.F. Fedorov, the basis of which is the universal raise of the dead, which in itself indicates the utopianism of both the second and the first. Nevertheless, in this idea you can find quite rational grains that have not been discovered to this day.

Key words: time, resurrection, beingness, immortality, person, consciousness, mind, will, death, life.

In essence, the approach of thinkers from the beginning of time to the force that governs the world or dominates in it boils down to the following.
Some believe that the world is led by an outside higher mind, others, such as Schopenhauer, consider blind will to be the dominant force in the world.
Insufficiency of the first approach is visible in the fact that beingness is extremely imperfect, living beings are mortal, and they are mainly engaged in what they survive by eating each other. Even the highest creation of divine power - a person, although he has self-consciousness at the level of design-targeted thinking, is actually subordinate to the arbitrariness of natural and social forces, which largely limit his thinking and actions, despite all cooperative efforts of people. In addition, a person retains the natural consciousness of a primate, and therefore too often behaves like an animal, despite all the cultural and technological achievements of civilization. Dying, a person, as a thinking and creating being, who has accumulated a lot of knowledge and experience during his life, who has created from himself a personality of one order or another, loses all this, as if irretrievably, which, of course, cannot but cause him the idea of establishing individual immortality with the help of witchcraft or science, as he believes in the face of his most inquisitive representatives.
As for the blind will that supposedly dominates the world, this idea expresses the same skepticism, which also boils down to the imperfection of beingness which therefore cannot be guided by anyone rational, and which is moving spontaneously to no one knows where and unknown for what, carrying in its seething streams of a person practically helpless in the face of this blind force.
The fundamental similarity of both approaches, although outwardly they seem different, reflects the above-mentioned imperfection of beingness, allowed for some reason by God, or manifested completely for no reason in blind will. However, they do not offer any effective measures to correct such sad situation for a person, since the higher mind, or God, as its adherents believe, promises the righteous paradise only after death, and blind will does not guarantee anything other than a short stay in such harsh reality.
Despite the well-known division of a person into body and soul (consciousness), the vast majority of people still identify a person with the body, since it is on him fortunately, and consciousness, or soul, is unknown where.
Reasonably speaking, every person believes that first of all the body should feel good, since without it or in illness there is no life.
But if you live forever and in a completely comfortable way, it would be quite nice to be in the pleasant company of the same immortal persons in the process of attractive creative activity.
However, this dispensation instantly collapses due to such a small thing as the fact that there is no infinity in our beingness, neither for the living nor for the lifeless. Even the Universe is coming to an end.
The finitude of everything in beingness by itself is renewal, without which life, which consists of constant change, which can be both positive and negative for an individual, is impossible.
In addition, a conflict-free and painless life in endless, unburdensome labor and reflections, although it is unclear about what and for what in such blissful world without contradictions and without struggle, will not lead any sane person to anything other than universal boredom, and he will inevitably have a dream of returning into the former unsettled world with all its shortcomings and troubles, to which, by virtue of its constitution, it is adapted precisely because it is mortal.
In this competitive world, a person can fight, suffer, enjoy, win and lose disputes and conflicts, deriving from this process not only the benefits for himself and the whole community, but also avoiding stagnation in this struggle of interests. It is clear that not everyone will exchange all this for immortality with its conflict-free and boredom, but in fact, with the disappearance of the will to live in complete well-being with subsequent degradation, which, by the way, was shown relatively recently by experiments on animals.
In other words, the idea of the immortality of a person and humanity as a whole in its continuity denies development, which is impossible without destruction and creation, which, in fact, is liberty, the highest degree of which is achieved in a person, but which is also characteristic of any living being, since it lives only because it destroys (eats) something and at the same time creates (offspring).
Despite the obvious meaninglessness of immortality, which, of course, many dreamed of, but which fundamental religious teachings nevertheless attributed to the otherworldly, and atheists of various stripes did not discuss at all, there was one thinker who created a whole theory about the total raise of the dead and further eternal correction bodies living with the help of science, as a result of which the birth of new people is not required, and the boundless cosmos can accept all resurrected representatives of the human race [1].
Fedorov justifies the need for the return to life of the dead as follows.
Full duty is the return to life of the dead, that is, the conversion of an unfree world, where everything is determined by physical necessity, causality, into a conscious, free world which we can now imagine only mentally; we must actually implement it, because this is not only an ideal, but project; In this realization lies virtue, to which liberty and immortality necessarily belong, which makes people not only worthy of happiness, but also gives them happiness, which is, therefore, not only boon or goodness, but also bliss. This is not that powerless, only personal or social virtue, which, we repeat, is capable of making people only worthy of happiness, this virtue is the work, the valor of all; turning the blind, deadly force of nature into a mind-controlled, life-giving force (worship of blind force is a renunciation of God and the turning of man into an animal); that is why it contains the power to make people happy. Thus, a person, eliminating personal motives from his actions, the desire for personal happiness, necessarily, however, achieves it, because common virtue, that is, the actions of all, is the reason for the return to life of all, and therefore, the personal immortality. You need to live not for yourself (egoism) and not for others (altruism), but with everyone and for everybody; this is the unification of the living (sons) for the return to life of the dead (fathers) [1, part 2, paragraph 14].
By refusing the return to life, from controlling the blind power of nature, a person surrenders himself to the power of the latter. And unconscious history makes sense if the return to life, without being accomplished consciously and voluntarily, will be accomplished unconsciously and involuntarily, i.e. if the human race is forced, reduced to making the return to life its conscious, free act. And then it will be obvious that a person is only an executor of the will of the higher mind, a will that is obviously boon, and that this will is boon will be clear, if we only want to imagine the joy of the persons which return other to life and the resurrected persons, in which is the boon and the truth and the beautiful in their full unity and perfection "[1, part 3].
"When coexisting, when full organs, personalities are immortal, and the sequence is the free action of personalities by changing forms, travel, so to speak, under which organs change, like the crews of clothing (i.e. time will have no influence on personalities, it will be their action, activity), the unity of personalities will be manifested according to their action on the whole world, in regulation and endless creativity "[1, part 4].
... only in this way will humanity get rid of universal mortality, which appeared as an accident, from ignorance, therefore, from powerlessness, and through inheritance, which has become a congenital epidemic disease, before which all other epidemics can be considered sporadic diseases. Mortality has become a universal organic vice, a deformity that we no longer notice and do not consider either a vice or a deformity [1, part 4].
Fedorov emphasizes the main thing in his vision of the harmonization of existence so: The task of the human race is to convert everything unconscious, which spontaneously becomes born into a conscious, bright, real, universal, personal resurrection [1, part 2, paragraph 13].
This benevolent statement of Fedorov, who naively believed that everything that exists can be brought under the control of the human mind, apparently led him to such tempting choice of the universal raise of the dead, which, as he saw it, solves all the problems of existence and ensures universal happiness and immortality, since alive are killed by war, polemics, competition and all struggle [2. Question 8].
In fact, firstly, the human mind has natural restrictions on the perception of information even in the totality of all immortal people and therefore is not able to cover everything and everything, especially if it all endlessly and largely does not depend on people, since they do not completely form all this material; secondly, the adaptability inherent in all living beings is necessary for them to coordinate their actions with many objects and phenomena independent of them, which cannot be made completely dependent even on conscious people, at least immortals, as a result of which "to convert everything unconscious... into the conscious" is also impossible, thirdly, a person who is a primate by origin cannot be completely separated from nature without completely destroying his biological essence, that is, himself, fourthly, the refusal to fight, competition is the refusal to develop not only a person, but his consciousness, that is, not at all the arrival of a happy, calm and creative life, but degradation and decay.
Fedorov is also wrong in the following statement "One restoration of disappeared, conversion of it into conscious and active is proof, complete knowledge and reliable, immortal existence" [1, part 2, paragraph 16] since immortal consciousness stores everything that was and forms the present through living beings with an eye to the future.
It is curious that despite the ridicule of a certain part of the audience about the idea of immortality, Fedorov was not wrong in everything, although his approach to this problem, limited only to a person and humanity, which he wanted to first resurrect and then make immortal, was, of course, not quite adequate.
Nevertheless, living forever, paradoxically, is not only possible, but also necessary, however, not continuously.
The fact is that, in addition to the body, there is also consciousness inherent in that body. This is no longer questioned by anyone, although the origin of consciousness is assessed differently.
The main thing is that without a body, consciousness is not capable of being active in the environment, and a body without consciousness is a helpless pile of organic material, incapable of any action.
This fact means that the leader in this peculiar symbiosis of consciousness and body is consciousness, organizing this or that activity of the body in appropriate structure, which is also determined not by the body itself, but by the same consciousness, since there is no one another to do this.
In other words, consciousness receives capacity acting only in the body, which thereby is, as it were, its instrument and with the collapse of the body, consciousness already has not the structure one to control. And what should consciousness do?
On the other hand, neither consciousness nor any external forces are able to extend the life of a body beyond a certain limit, since it is not determined by them. This limit initially depends on the inevitable accumulation of failures in the body structure of any living being, like any other object, destroying its shape. These failures occur by accident, that is, unforeseen, although quite rarely in a complex organized structure of Creation, which, like any complex structure, cannot develop unmistakably.
More information about the reason for the gradual destruction of the human body, as well as about what actually initially determines the life limit of any living creature, and why the calendar life span of organisms is so different - up to a million times, can be read in my article Why life time such is, what it is? [3].
Thus, due to the inevitable disintegration of the body, its owner - consciousness, remains out of work, and logically there is nothing left for him but to try to find a new tool of labor, which is what it does.
That is why, a person, since consciousness is the main thing in him, after the death of the body, still remains to live, but not in a disintegrating body, but in a completely new one with the same consciousness, but without memory of a previous life. Otherwise, will previous impressions, thoughts and deeds interfere with the same consciousness in its actions in a different body and in different conditions?
Thereby, unlike the body, consciousness does not disappear anywhere, but manifests itself in each new body endlessly, but discretely in relation to the bodily, preserving in its memory all past lives. The body does not need to be made immortal, since in the symbiosis of body and consciousness there is already the immortal. This immortal is the consciousness of a person, which feeds on different impressions in each new body, and without which no being can be born or live. For consciousness, the body is nothing more than a tool with which it operates in the environment during the life of each of the bodies.
Be that as it may, but in his blissful theory of a universal paradise for immortal humanity in its entirety - from the very first intelligent beings to the very last - Fedorov was not a dreamer in everything.
He has actually guessed the presence of a certain formation containing everything that is, was and can be, but attributed it not to the otherworldly infinite nothingness outside of time (Uniform), potentially being the basis of Creation, the derivative of which is beingness located in time, but, on the contrary, he decided that all this can be obtained, having revealed beingness with the help of rational beings through the universal raise of the dead, that is, having the present, to come to this perfection and endless harmony of immortals through raise of the dead: Supramoralism, in contrast to Buddhist nirvana, non-existence, requires from rational beings of the full disclosure of beingness, that is, everything that is, was and can be in it; rational beings, having the present, that is, everything that is, bring back to life what was, in all possible perfection. Supramoralism requires paradise, the Kingdom of God, not the otherworldly, but side-by-side, it requires a transformation of this-worldly, earthly reality, a transformation that extends to all the heavenly worlds and brings us closer to the otherworldly world, unknown to us: paradise, or the Kingdom of God, is not only within us, not only mental , not only spiritual, but also visible, tangible, all-perceptible by organs, produced by psychophysiological regulation (i.e., control of spiritual and bodily phenomena), organs to which are capable of not only to obscurity, but also the movement of molecules and atoms of the entire Universe, which makes the revival possible and the entire Universe the transformation [2].
In other words, Fedorov, believing beingness to be the only reality equivalent to Creation, and the otherworldly to be ideal, considers it possible to get closer to this ideal by the efforts of all intelligent beings (people) and scientific achievements due to the return to life these intelligent ones and introducing them to a state of immortality, which, apparently, is quite reasonable, since thereby complete harmony is achieved in endless creative existence.
However, Fedorov himself notes that we are in the present, but he also imagines that it can be turned into eternity, which contains everything that is, was and can be, without realizing that with this transformation there will be a loss of time with the receipt of nothingness, in which no events are possible and everything in this nothingness is no more than in potency, which is revealed precisely in the current time of the present. That is, Fedorov strives, as it turns out, from time into timelessness because of all the misfortunes, troubles and sorrows that humanity experiences in the present, whereas it is in these trials and deaths that not only the development of humanity occurs, but the most important thing in Creation occurs - development the human self- consciousness, which creates the maximum possible changes in the total (single)nconsciousness thanks to all innumerable collisions in the consciousness of a person and the aggregate humanity, which is constantly being renewed due to the mortality of members, which constituent of it.
Thus, immortality for a person is not only impossible, but also meaningless, since consciousness makes him thinking and active in his own individuality and personality, and the human body is only an instrument of consciousness. The loss of a body for an individual consciousness does not mean a catastrophe, but a transition of the same consciousness to a new life in another body, then to the next life, and so on. That is, the human consciousness in its special features thereby acquires not only immortality, but also countless new lives [4, sections 2.1; 2.2].
So, at its core, Fedorovs idea of a universal return to life of dead comes down to the return of the past time toward the present time, and the unification of humanity by transferring this present time into eternity: Hidden in the childish feeling of universal brotherhood was the fact that every person is a son, grandson, great-grandson , great-great-grandson... a descendant of the father, grandfathers, great-grandfathers, ancestors, a common forefather, therefore, this feeling contained not only the closest connection of the present, living (sons), but the same or even greater connection as the present with the past (fathers) , in contrast to the teachings of ancient and modern philosophers, whose mistake lies precisely in the gap between the present and the past [1, part 2].
Judging by Fedorovs statements, he, in essence, connecting the past with the present, eliminates the future time, which, as it were, precedes the past and without it is not capable of manifesting itself in the present, for the sake, as it seems to him, of ensuring the immortality and happiness of every person in eternity. That is, he forgets that life in eternity, containing everything that was, is and will be, simply cannot exist, since in this separate eternity, in particular, there is no renewal characteristic of the present time, which is formed by the persons as by any other living being also, through its senses and consciousness automatically, whereas the past is contained in his memory, manifesting itself, again, in the present, and a person is able to imagine the future only in his imagination again in the present.
In other words, constant updating in the form of successive packets of information entering a persons senses discretely, but merging in his consciousness into a smooth flow of current time, means that he is constantly objectively located only in the present time, in which the past accumulates, and the future is imagined [4, section 2.1].
Nevertheless, Fedorov, despite the obvious inadequacy of the approach he proposed to achieving immortality and happiness for all people who have lived and are living, was able to imagine that in addition to the objectively current time for a person, there is also something timeless, which can contain everything - both consciousness and things, and immortality, and happiness, however, without understanding that consciousness and things in this timeless infinity are one and inseparable, being potentially in it, but capable of being manifested in time. Without understanding this potential status of the eternal unmanifest infinity outside of time, he tried to apply this timeless state to a person, again, having forgot that a person, in his own words, is an instrument of God, that is, a person is only an intermediary between God, or the Higher Mind, and the consciousness of each person.
Therefore, Fedorov, as it were, makes a reverse move - he strives from life in the current time with all its collisions to captivate all people together to the timeless, which, of course, cannot absent at all, having, really, a different status, but only because imperfect but developing life is seething exactly in the current time.
In other words, the timeless and infinite can manifest itself only in the final, mortal, that is, alive due to the fact that consciousness and things (soulless matter), which are potentially united in this timeless, are already united again in man in the current time in the form of living beings in the corresponding infrastructure (universes).
Therefore, the timeless and the temporal are two indissoluble sides of the same eternal Creation, intended for the change and development of ones own unified consciousness through each individual consciousness in a separate living being, the ultimate expression of which is such a being conscious of itself in time as a person, capable of separating himself from blind nature for the sake of achieving its own goals, projects and whims, thereby creating a discrete trend in the endless change of consciousness, which thereby becomes eternal, in contrast to a specific mortal person [see, for example, 4, sections 2.2; 2.4].
Apparently, Fedorov understood the limited capabilities of science and the dubiousness of the state of immortality for a person and humanity, but he was captured by the idea of establishing the unity of a person and humanity in the process of the most organic unification of thought and deed in the course of immortal existence.
Therefore, Fedorov says little about the technology of turning the dead into the living and about the future life of these immortal creatures, believing that as long as the mortifying force exists and acts unhindered, it is paralogical to talk about immortality [5].
However, looking ahead, he believes that ... when nature is controlled by reason... there will be no struggle or death in this world, like God, because those who are born, or sons, due to boundless love for those who gave birth, will no longer be give birth to the mortal, but will recreate the dead, that is, the immortal... when nature dominates over a sentient and rational being, when this sentient and rational being, giving birth, that is, unconsciously producing a new being, itself grows old and dies instead of recreating the dead, itself to become immortal, ageless, that is, self-regenerating. ...man himself becomes an instrument of salvation; The paralogism of the immortality of theoretical reason is resolved by the actual universal revival, as a matter of practical reason. At the same time, psychology turns from general to collective, becomes a psychocracy, that is, it unites the human race both internally and externally in the work of knowledge and control of the soulless power of the cosmos, and thus psychology is not separated from cosmology, and returned to life generations become the mind and soul of all worlds of the Universe" [2].
Fedorov imagines the revival itself like this.
We know nothing about the abyss and the victory of defeated death, but we believe it is possible for us, as instruments of the God of the Fathers, who breathed life into us, possible and necessary, on the one hand, to achieve, through all, of course, people, knowledge and control of all molecules and atoms of the external world so as to collect the scattered, to unite the decomposed, that is, to put them in the bodies of the fathers that they had at their death, and on the other hand, we believe it is possible and necessary, having achieved the internal control of the psychophysiological process, to replace the birth of children similar themselves, their fathers and ancestors (atavism), by returning to fathers the life, received from them [ibid.].
The project of the general action of the subject, in its entirety, on the object in its entirety (i.e., on the entire earthly planet in its entirety, and not on any part of it only, on the entire solar system in its entirety, and, finally, to the entire Universe). This action consists, firstly, in turning the generative force into a regenerative one and the killing one into a reviving one, and secondly, in collecting scattered dust and combining it into bodies, using for this purpose radiant images, or images left by waves from the vibration of each molecule, and thirdly, in the regulation of the Earth, i.e. in the management of the Earth as a cemetery, - this control consists in the sequential return to life, or re-creation of many generations of the dead, in the return to life to spread through returned to life the regulation to all worlds that do not have the inhabitants. Such a project is a complete expression of supramoralism, or the answer to the question for what purpose was a person created, indicating that the human race, all the sons of men - through the regulation of the heavenly worlds - themselves will become heavenly powers, ruling the worlds of the Universe" [ibid.].
The difficulty of rebuilding for each generation of that generation that immediately preceded it is exactly the same; since the attitude of the present generation towards their fathers and that of the generation, which will reach the art of rebuilding first, his fathers exactly like our great-grandfathers to their fathers. Although the first, returned to life will, in all likelihood, be return almost immediately after death, barely having time to die, and those who are less devoted to smoldering will follow, but each new experience in this matter will facilitate further steps. With each new return to life, knowledge will grow; it will be at the height of the task, and when the human roll reaches the first deceased. Moreover, for our great-great-great-grandfathers, the rebuilding should be even easier, incomparably easier, that is, it will be incomparably more difficult for our great-great-great-grandchildren to restore their fathers than for us and our great-great-great-grandfathers, for in the rebuilding of our fathers we will use not only all previous experiences in this matter, but also through the cooperation of our resurrectors, so that it will be easier for the first son of a person to restore his father, the father of all people [1, part 4].
In essence, Fedorov made another attempt to make people happy like Plato, Marx, the anarchist Kropotkin and other guardians of justice, but, unlike them, - on a universal scale, and even making them immortal.
Plato represented happiness and justice within the framework of the state-polis so:
"Until philosophers reign in the state, or the socalled current kings and lords will not nobly and thoroughly philosophize and this will not merge into one the state power and philosophy, and until those people are obligatorily removed - and there are many of them - who are now striving separately or for power, or to philosophy, until then, dear Glaucon, states will not get rid of evils, and it will not become possible for the human race and will not see the sunlight that state structure which we have only described verbally" [6. Book 5].
Fedorov went further than Plato and all other guardians of justice and happiness. He decided to revive all dead and make them, as well as all living immortals, who will go out into the boundless but soulless cosmos and revive it by themselves, making it regulated, that is, they will begin to control it.
Where are the modern science fiction writers here!?
Of course, such dreams contain both positive and negative, because, on the one hand, Fedorov sincerely wishes everyone to get out of the web of pathetic passions, hatred and malice, combining his own fruitful ideas with the cause of overcoming the blind force of nature.
Despite all the difficulties, the general return to life is only a return to a normal state, when humanity, in full possession of nature, as by its own strength, can carry out not out of need, but out of an excess of spiritual power the endless thought in the unlimited means of matter, having a model in Deity, accessible to contemplatio of the human race" [1, part 2, paragraph 24].
...a person himself becomes an instrument of salvation; The paralogism of the immortality of theoretical reason is resolved by the actual universal return to life, as a matter of practical reason. At the same time, psychology turns from general to collective, becomes a psychocracy, that is, it unites the human race both internally and externally in the work of knowledge and control of the soulless power of the cosmos, and thus psychology is not separated from cosmology, and the generations returned to life become the mind and soul of all worlds Universe" [2. Question XII].
On the other hand, his gigantic swing is obviously incapable of having any practical result, not only due to the impossibility of molecular assembly ensuring human immortality, but also due to the ineradicable animal nature of a person, which creates, in confrontation with his self-consciousness, that competitive development trend that ensures the accelerated development of the human self-consciousness, unlike animals, giving a person in his communities the opportunity to produce both cultural values and achieve greater success in the development of technology and the acquisition of ever greater living comfort.
True, all this is being given in continuous conflicts, rivalry, struggle and contradictions, but without them, that is, in a cloudless and calm life, nothing happens, which N. F. Fedorov did not turn his attention to, but I. Kant has drawn the attention to long before him, having indicated in his work The Doctrine of Society. Section The Idea of Universal History in the World-Civil Plan, that an idyllic existence without struggle means complete stagnation and a stop in the development of society: The means that nature uses to realize the development of all the inclinations of people is their antagonism in society, since it ultimately becomes a cause of its law-consistent order... Without these themselves unattractive properties of non-sociability, generating resistance, which everyone must inevitably come across in their selfish claims, all talents in the living conditions of the Arcadian shepherds, that is, in conditions of complete unanimity, moderation and mutual love, would forever remain hidden in the bud; people as meek as the sheep they graze are unlikely to have made their existence more worthy than that of pets... " [7, p. 5].
Fedorov does not accept such contradictory development of humanity in the conditions of civilization, believing that it would be preferable for humanity not such humiliating progress for a person, but the work of the return to life of the dead, which, ultimately, will lead all living persons and persons, returned to life, to general well-being, happiness and creative development in the cosmos they had mastered: Although stagnation is death and regression is not heaven, progress is true hell, and the truly divine, the truly human lies in saving the victims of progress, in bringing them out of hell. Progress as the negation of the fatherland and brotherhood is complete moral decline, the negation of morality itself... ...progress consists in the consciousness by the sons of their superiority over the dead, that is, in such consciousness that excludes the need, and therefore the possibility, of uniting the living (sons) to the return to life of the dead (fathers), and meanwhile, in the matter of the return to life the fathers, real superiority would be expressed sons, if only this can be called superiority, whereas in glorification over fathers only their imaginary superiority is expressed [1, part 1, paragraph 15].
If progress, improvement occurs with the help of evolution, development (change of states) of what is happening (?), then progress is not so much the action of an intelligent being as a manifestation of blind force, and therefore cannot be called the improvement [1, part 1, note 9].
However, Fedorov did not understand that the blind, as he called it, force of progress, which forces civilization to accelerate the flow of its own time, is in fact not purely natural. It arises from the interaction of the animal (natural) consciousness of man and the completely rational self-consciousness inherent only in man, which has separated him from the blind forces of nature. It is the struggle of these two components of the human consciousness, and not some other natural forces, that ensures the accelerated development of civilization, and therefore allows each individual human consciousness to constantly plunge into ever-growing information flows, that is, to receive ever new changes in their own self-awareness as a result arising collisions, thereby developing both his self-consciousness and giving from the entire totality of individual forms of consciousness new food for a single consciousness of all [see, for example, 4, sections 2.2; 2.4].
Along the way, Fedorov completely deservedly debunks one of humanitys hopes for a harmonious life - socialism, which, as later practice has shown, really turned out to be a false semblance of a fair society, only hiding the ruthless face of capitalism: Unification in the name of comfort, for the sake of ones own pleasure, is the worst thing the use of life both mentally, aesthetically, and especially morally... ...Socialism is a deception; kinship, brotherhood, he calls the partnership of people alien to each other, connected only by external benefits... ...Is it possible, is it natural to limit the human cause to protecting only the correct distribution of the products of production, forcing everyone to insensitively, dispassionately observe that no one appropriates more for himself against others or that someone would give up something to others, refusing what is theirs? [1, part 1, paragraph 19].
The positivity of such paradoxical view of Fedorov on the development of civilization - the progress - is, however, reflected in the fact that he quite adequately noticed its final degeneration, but instead of analyzing the origin of this degeneration, he proposed that everyone unite for a universal return to life: If the unification of the living for a universal return to life does not is carried out consciously, then the unification of sons turns into civilization, into alienation, hostility, into destruction, and instead of the return to life appears culture, that is, degeneration and finally extinction [ibid., part 3, paragraph 1].
Fedorov also quite rightly has assessed the activities of personalities in history: The activities of personalities create not history, but the comedy of world history. The history that individual personalities create according to the principle of historiosophism is the struggle of these personalities for the right to lead the crowd towards a goal, towards an ideal, which serves only as bait to take possession of the people... [ibid., part 1, note 9].
Fedorov plans to begin moving all returned to life, the number of whom is such that they cannot fit on the planet, into limitless cosmos, which will be regulated and enlivened by them, creating a kind of paradise by the forces of all people in their totality: The duty of the return to life requires the opening of a path to heavenly space, for without the possession of heavenly space the simultaneous existence of generations is impossible, although, on the other hand, without the return to life of all people it is impossible to achieve complete possession of heavenly space... ...The question of the fate of the Earth leads us to the conviction that the human activity should not to be limited to the terrestrial planet... ...stable existence is impossible while the Earth remains isolated from other worlds. Each isolated world, due to its limitations, cannot have immortal beings. On each planet, the means of life are limited, not infinite, although they can be very large, and, therefore, death should eventually appear due to lack of means of subsistence, if it had not had time to appear earlier for random reasons [ibid., part 4].
Thus, Fedorov became the founder of space exploration. K. E. Tsiolkovsky took advantage of his idea, and then it was implemented on the scale of the Solar System, which continues to this day.
However, all enthusiasts of space exploration with a possible meeting with the inhabitants of other planets of the Universe and further control of the Universe, obviously, still have not realized what Fedorov already understood then, who specifically noted that without the return to life all people it is impossible to achieve complete possession of celestial space, having remarked also: By turning the influence of the earthly mass into conscious labor, the united human race will give the earthly force controlled by reason and feeling, therefore, the life-giving force, dominance over the blind forces of other celestial bodies and will unite them in one life-giving work of the return to life all people [ibid., part 3, paragraph 2].
In this mastered cosmos, Fedorov suggests finally arranging a true paradise for all these immortal returned to life in all generations, however, without specifying either specific means of the return to life or tools for arranging this paradise: "The kingdom of God, or paradise, is a work of all forces of all abilities, all people in their totality, a work of not negative, but positive virtues, such, one might say, a paradise for adults, it can be a work of only people themselves, a work of completeness of knowledge, depth of feeling, power of will; paradise can be created only by the people themselves, in fulfillment of the will of God, not alone, but by all the forces of all people in their totality, and it cannot consist in inaction, eternal peace, peace is nirvana, perfection lies in life in activity "[2. Question XII].
The only sad thing is that Fedorov, having eliminated time in his idea of the return to life all people by entering a certain eternity, actually receives not activity, but eternal peace, in which life is impossible (see above).
All of the above indicates that Fedorovs idea of humanity going into cosmos arose as a necessary consequence of the return to life all people, without which an attempt to master cosmos totally becomes hopeless.
To this it makes sense to add the following.
The point is not even that manned flights to exoplanets located at a distance of at least several light years are hardly possible at all given the modern development of technology and the complete discrepancy between the structure of the human body and the structure and composition of the extended and low-temperature space vacuum, saturated with deadly radiation [see, for example, 8], but that the very development of technological civilizations, as Fedorov rightly noted, is not infinite due to their degradation.
As we believe, this development, amounting to 6-10 thousand calendar years, ends with a natural collapse when a technological civilization on any planet reaches its highest stage - capitalism due to the compaction of the civilization's own current time up to the point of singularity, upon reaching which this time ends, and with it the existence of this form of civilization also ends, which after some time arises again, developing, if the civilization is technological, in approximately the same way as the previous one, up to the point of singularity, etc.
However, the technological civilizations do not always end their existence with complete disintegration with the descent of the surviving population into wildness.
The discovered artifacts show not only the existence on Earth of at least several dozen developed technological civilizations over hundreds of millions of years, but also the emergence on the wreckage of technological civilizations that have preserved some technologies, equilibrium ecological civilizations that partly resemble the world of the resurrected persons, which Fedorov spoke about, by their existence without competitive development, as a result of which they gradually fade away [see, for example, 9].
This regularity of the emergence of civilizations on planets that are capable of providing conditions for the development of the human communities for a certain period clearly shows that it is not a person in his short life, no matter how long it is extended, who is the pearl of the universe, but it is his immortal consciousness, whose temporary, but The most perfect instrument is a person.
Therefore, the desire of all thinkers, including N.F. Fedorov, to focus on ways to improve man and his communities, leading them one way or another ultimately to a harmonious existence without troubles and worries and even to immortality, is nothing more than a chimera.


1. Ը . . . 1906. https://predanie.ru
2. , . 1906. https://predanie.ru)
3. Nizovtsev Yu. Why life time such is, what it is? Contradictory but real. Collection. Section 2. 29.05.2021 [Electronic resource]. Access mode: Amazon. Yury Nizovtsev.
4. Nizovtsev Yu. Everything and nothingness. 2016. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: www.litres.ru. Amazon. Yury Nizovtsev.
5. Ը . . !. , . 1906. https://predanie.ru
6. Plato. Complete works. Republic. Book VIII. Hackett Publishing Company. 1997.
7. Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View (1784). Translation by Lewis White Beck. From Immanuel Kant, On History, The Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1963.
8. Nizovtsev Yu. M. The bluff of space travels. It's the other way around. Answers to tricky questions about interesting things. Collection. Part 3. Section 2.
2019. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: www.litres.ru. Amazon. Yury Nizovtsev.
9. Nizovtsev Yu. M. Are "paradisiacal tabernacles" on Earth possible? 29.12.2023. [Electronic resource]. Access mode: www.samlib.ru. ., or in Russain: ? . . 11.01.2024.


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